Particle Method Simulation for Formation and Flow of Cold Flakes in High-Pressure Die Casting

  • Hitoshi TokunagaEmail author
  • Yuichi Motoyama
  • Toshimitsu Okane


In high-pressure die casting (HPDC) processing of aluminum alloys, solidified layers generated in the sleeve of a die casting machine that flow into the mold cavity are known as “cold flakes.” The prediction and control of them are a crucially important issue for HPDC. This study developed a method to simulate their formation and flow using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. First, a solidified layer was modeled as a set of solid particles with behaviors defined by mechanical constitutive equations. Second, this study proposed an algorithm for ascertaining the phase of particles and for calculating liquid–solid particle interaction. Numerical results demonstrated that the method can predict the formations of solidified layers in the sleeve, their peeling and folding during the plunger movements, their inflow into the runner and the mold cavity, and flow disturbances caused by solidified layers trapped at the gate.


cold flakes high-pressure die casting HPDC particle method smoothed particle hydrodynamics SPH AISI 383.0 (JIS ADC12) aluminum alloy 



The authors thank Prof. Makoto Yoshida of Waseda University for his valuable advice and Prof. Naomi Nishi of Institute of Technologists for providing a picture of cold-flake defect.


  1. 1.
    H. Iwahori, K. Tozawa, Y. Yamamoto, M. Nakamura, Formation of scattered structures in aluminum alloy die casting. J. Jpn. Inst. Light Metals 34(7), 389–394 (1984). (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Mao, A Numerical Study of Externally Solidified Products in the Cold Chamber Die Casting Process, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Maeda, H. Nomura, Numerical experiment of cold flakes behavior in shot sleeve of aluminum alloy die casting. J. Jpn. Foundry Eng. Soc. 78(12), 654–660 (2006). (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.J. Monaghan, Simulating free surface flows with SPH. J. Comput. Phys. 110(2), 399–406 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Koshizuka, Y. Oka, Moving-particle semi-implicit method for fragmentation of incompressible fluid. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 123(3), 421–434 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P.W. Cleary, Extension of SPH to predict feeding, freezing and defect creation in low pressure die casting. Appl. Math. Model. 34(11), 3189–3201 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Kazama, T. Suwa, Numerical Simulation of the Solidification of the Melted Metal by the Particle Method, in Proceedings of WCCM XIECCM VECFD VI, Barcelona (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Ichimiya, Y. Sakai, Development of filling and solidification simulation using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. J. Jpn. Foundry Eng. Soc. 85(8), 481–488 (2013). (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Hirata, K. Anzai, Heat transfer and solidification analysis using particle method. J. Jpn. Foundry Eng. Soc. 80(2), 81–87 (2008). (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Hirata, K. Anzai, Numerical simulation of shrinkage formation behavior with consideration of solidification progress during mold filling using stabilized particle method. Mater. Trans. 58(6), 932–937 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Tokunaga, T. Okane, T. Okano, Design interface for flow channel design integrated with highly efficient fluid flow analysis method—application to runner design of die-casting during casting flow simulation. J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 82(1), 100–105 (2016). (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Iwashita, M. Hakuno, Modified distinct element method simulation of dynamic cliff collapse, in Structural Engineering/Earthquake Engineering (Proceedings of JSCE No. 416), vol. 7 (1), pp. 133–142 (1990)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Ferrari, M. Dumbser, E.F. Toro, A. Armanini, A new 3D parallel SPH scheme for free surface flows. Comput. Fluids 38, 1203–1217 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Wendland, Piecewise polynomial, positive definite and compactly supported radial functions of minimal degree. Adv. Comput. Math. 4, 389–396 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.P. Gray, J.J. Monaghan, R.P. Swift, SPH elastic dynamics. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 190, 6641–6662 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G.R. Liu, M.B. Liu, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics: A Meshfree Particle Method (World Scientific, Singapore, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Foundry Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations