International Journal of Metalcasting

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 166–179 | Cite as

Failure Analysis and Hot Tearing Susceptibility of Stainless Steel CF3M

  • Dheeraj S. BhiogadeEmail author
  • Sanjay M. Randiwe
  • Abhaykumar M. Kuthe


Hot tear formation has been witnessed during the solidification of the ferrous alloy by pulling the columnar dendrites in the transverse direction. The hot tearing susceptibility of an alloy is influenced by solidification rate, microstructure and the stress/strain conditions. It is valuable to predict the occurrence of tearing in a casting. In this study, hot tearing susceptibility of stainless steel CF3M grade casting was investigated using the method of constrained T-shaped solidification shrinkage and inducing strain by pulling dendrites in a transverse direction. An experimental setup equipped with the real-time measurement of temperature, displacement and contraction/applied force during solidification at elevated temperature has been developed. In this study, the sectioning technique was adopted for residual stress measurement after casting solidification, wire electric discharge machining has been identified as a suitable method of cutting along with a coordinate measuring machine sufficiently accurate for measurement, and finite element modeling and analysis were performed to calculate the stress. A metallographic study using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope was performed to evaluate macro- and microstructure at failure zone of the casting. The study aims to investigate crack morphology and differentiate hot tear from other types of cracks in order to troubleshoot effectively. Stress, strain and temperature data provide onset of hot tearing and provide a base for mathematical model and validation. The results show that the strain or strain rate is more critical for hot tearing than stress. The studies on residual stress show that the tensile stress is not required to generate hot tears, but only the tensile strain is sufficient to form a hot tear.


hot tear stainless steel CF3M (316L) residual stress metallographic study crack morphology 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    J. Campbell, Castings (Butterworth and Heineman Ltd, Oxford, 1991)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C.L. Martin, D. Favier, M. Suery, Int. J. Plast. 15, 981–1008 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Wang, B. Sun, Q. Wang, Y. Zhu, W. Ding, Mater. Lett. 53, 35–39 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    O. Ludwig, J.M. Drezet, C.L. Martin, M. Suery, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 36, 1525–1535 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Rappaz, J.-M. Drezet, M. Gremaud, Metall. Mater. Trans. 30A, 449–455 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H.F. Bishop, C.G. Ackerlind, W.S. Pellini, Metallurgy and mechanics of hot tearing. AFS Trans. 60, 818–833 (1952)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B.G. Thomas, Modeling of Stress, Distortion and Hot Tearing ASM Handbook, Volume 15: Casting ASM Handbook Committee, pp. 449–461.
  8. 8.
    T.W. Clyne, G.J. Davies, A quantitative solidification test for castings and an evaluation of cracking in aluminium–magnesium alloys. Br. Foundryman 68, 238 (1975)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Li, D. Apelian, Hot tearing of aluminum alloys. Int. Metalcast. 5(1), 23–40 (2011). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Hatami, R. Babaei, M. Dadashzadeh, P. Davami, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205, 506–513 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.Z. Zhu, J. Guo, M.T. Samonds, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 87, 289–308 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Z. Wang, J. Song, Y. Huang, A. Srinivasan, Z. Liu, K. Kainer et al., Metall. Mater. Trans. A 46, 2108–2118 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Alvarez Vera, J.H. Garcia-Duarte, A. Juarrez-Hernandez, R.D. Mercado-Solis, A.G. Castillo, M.A.L. Hernandez-Rodriguez, Failure analysis of Co–Cr hip resurfacing prosthesis during solidification. Case Stud. Eng. Fail. Anal. 1, 1–5 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Pokorny, C. Monroe, C. Beckermann et al., Int. Metalcast. 2, 41 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.A. Monroe, C. Beckermann, J. Klinkhammer, Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Process-XII (TMS, Warrendale, 2009), pp. 313–320Google Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    S. Kou, Acta Mater. 88, 366–374 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Z. Lin, A. Monroe, C.K. Huff, R.C. Beckermann, Prediction of hot tear defects in steel castings using a damage based model. Model. Cast. Weld. Adv. Solid. Process. 12, 329–336 (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.C. Hamaker, W.P. Wood, Influence of phosphorus on hot tear resistance of plain and alloy gray iron. AFS Trans. 60, 501–510 (1952)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.V. Eeghem, A.D. Sy, A contribution to understanding the mechanism of hot tearing of cast steel. AFS Trans. 73, 282–291 (1965)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.A. Metz, M.C. Flemings, A fundamental study of hot tearing. AFS Trans. 78, 453–460 (1970)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y.F. Guven, J.D. Hunt, Hot-tearing in aluminum copper alloys. Cast. Met. 1, 104–111 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z.-Q. Wei, X.-R. Chen, H.-G. Zhong, Q.-J. Zhai, G. Wang, Hot tearing susceptibility of Fe–20.96Cr-2. 13Ni-0. 15N-4. 76Mn–0.01Mo duplex stainless steel. J. Iron Steel Res. Int. 24, 421–425 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. Li, H. Zhong, Q. Sun, X. Zhengqi, Q. Zhai, Effect of cooling rate on hot-crack susceptibility of duplex stainless steel. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 506, 191–195 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Stangeland, A. Mo, M. M’hamdi, D. Viano, C. Davidson, Thermal strain in the mushy zone related to hot tearing. Metall. Mater. Trans. 37, 705 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Akhyar, V. Malau, P.T.Iswanto Suyitno, Hot tearing susceptibility of aluminum alloys using CRCM-horizontal mold. Results Phys. 7, 1030–1039 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.S. Bhiogade, S.M. Randiwe, A.M. Kuthe et al., Study of hot tearing in stainless steel CF3M during casting using simulation and experimental method. Int. Metalcast. 12, 331–342 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A.S. Sabau, S. Mirmiran, S. Li et al., Hot-tearing assessment of multicomponent nongrain-refined Al–Cu alloys for permanent mold castings based on load measurements in a constrained mold (Met. Mater. Soc. ASM Int., Miner, 2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Tuttle, Examination of steel castings for potential nucleation phases. Int. Metalcast. 4(3), 17–25 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Roger, Stainless steel: an introduction to their metallurgy and corrosion resistance. Dairy Food Environ. Sanit. 20(7), 506–517 (2000)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Thorborg, J. Klinkhammer, M. Heitzer, Transient and residual stresses in large castings, taking time effects into account. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 33 (2012).
  32. 32.
    N.S. Rossini, M. Dassisti, K.Y. Benyounis, A.G. Olabi, Methods of measuring residual stresses in components. Mater. Des. 35, 572–588 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. Palumbo, V. Piglionico, Modelling residual stresses in sand-cast superduplex stainless steel. J. Mater. Process. Technol. (2014). Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M.B. Prime, Cross-Sectional Mapping of residual stresses by measuring the surface contour after a cut. J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 123(2), 162–168 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Foundry Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dheeraj S. Bhiogade
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sanjay M. Randiwe
    • 1
  • Abhaykumar M. Kuthe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, CAD/CAMVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations