International Journal of Metalcasting

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 765–771 | Cite as

Development and Evaluation of a New Eco-friendly Sodium Silicate-Based Binder System

  • Necip ÜnlüEmail author
  • Ahmet Odabaş


Although sand systems containing Na-silicate binder present several environmental and economic advantages, technological applications are restricted due to their poor knock-out properties and low moisture resistance. Thus, many investigations have been performed recently to eliminate these undesirable handicaps of Na-silicate binder. In this study, the technological importance of a recently developed Na-silicate binder with a liquid hardener and its applicability in a mold/core system have been investigated. Further, a casting trial of a tank rear idler wheel has been performed by using the molds prepared with the current Na-silicate binder, and the observations have been evaluated. It has been determined that using Na-silicate binder results in more important advantages and benefits such as shorter period (10 s) for CO2 application, sound mold surface without cavity, good gas permeability, long shelf-life at high moisture environment (90% moisture at 23 °C for 24 h), and achieving silica sand-based mold/core systems with superior shakeout property than that of the conventional ones. It has been observed that the preparation of molds with the current Na-silicate binder hardened by CO2 process and the liquid Na-silicate hardener provides a practically odorless and fast process, and outstanding casting quality during the trials.


Na-silicate binder foundry core molding 



Alazan Casting Chemicals & Industry Metal Inc. Co. is gratefully acknowledged for permission to publish this work. Corresponding author would like to thank the Editor and Reviewers of the International Journal of Metalcasting due to their highly valuable critical comments. Authors are also grateful to Anadolu Steel Casting Inc.Co., Kocaeli, Turkey, for their help during the casting trials of this study.


  1. 1.
    D. Warren, Br. Foundrym. 64(12), 52–56 (1971)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Czerwinski, M. Mir, W. Kasprzak, Int. J. Cast Metal Res. 28(3), 129–139 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Drożyński, A. Bobrowski, M. Holtzer, Arch. Foundry Eng. 15(1), 138–142 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    M.B. Parappagoudar, D.K. Pratihar, G.L. Datta, Mater. Manuf. Process. 23, 59–67 (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Robert E, W. Robert J, U.S. Patent No. 2, 765, 507, 9 Oct 1956Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. E. Bergna, U.S. Patent No. 4, 316, 744, 23 Feb 1982Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.A. Boyle, C.J. Martin, J.D. Neuner, in Neuner, in Epoxy Resins, ed. by B. Miracle, S.L. Donaldson (ASM International, Materials Park, 2001), p. 78Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.A. Heth, in Safety and Health Issues, ed. by S.T. Peters (Chapman & Hall, London, 1998), p. 832Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.K. Ohdar, P.T. Pushp, J. Eng. Manuf. (2003). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Zitian, H. Naiyu, D. Xuanpu, Int. J. Cast Met. Res. 17(1), 51–56 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.M. Andrade, S. Cava, S.N. Silva, L.E.B. Soledade, C.C. Rossi, E.R. Leite, C.A. Paskocimas, J.A. Varela, E. Longo, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 159(1), 125–134 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    H.G.F. Kunsmann, AFS Trans. 79, 488–492 (1971)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. A. Barker, N. Baggett, J. Stevenson, D. R. deCourcy, U.S. Patent No. 4,504,314, 12 Mar 1985Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. Schumacher, AFS Trans. 63, 488–492 (1955)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Chang, E.L. Chen, R. Lindeke, AFS Trans. 96, 217–222 (1988)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. Jina, F. Zitian, Z. Xiaolei, P. Di, China Foundry 6(3), 191–196 (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Ala-Merset, Characterization Study of Casting Binders Information Sheet 26052015 (Alazan Casting Chemicals & Industry Metal Inc. Co., Kocaeli, Turkey, 2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    W.H. Moore, W.E. Gruver, Jr., U.S. Patent No. 2,883,723, 28 Apr 1959Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R.H. Cooper, U.S. Patent No. 3,230,099, 18 Jan 1966Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.R. Brown (ed.), Foseco Ferrous Foundryman’s Handbook (Replika Press Pvt Ltd, Delhi, 2000), pp. 204–215Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Holtzer, D. Drożyński, A. Bobrowski, W. Plaza, Arch. Foundry Eng. 14(1), 37–40 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T.V.R. Rao, Metal Casting: Principles and Practice, 5th edn. (New Age International, New Delhi, India, 2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27. (foundry_sand). Accessed 25 May 2017
  28. 28.
    R.E. Melcher, F.W. Schaefer, U.S. Patent No. 4,131,476, 26 Dec 1978Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    GF Sand Testing Equipment Catalog, George Fischer Limited, Schaffhausen, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. D. Miller, Patent WO1995015229 A1, 8 Jun 1995Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Foundry Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Metallurgical and Materials Engineering DepartmentIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Alazan Casting Chemicals and Industry Metal Inc. Co.GebzeTurkey

Personalised recommendations