Advertisement

The Effect of Vacuum on the Mechanical Properties of Die Cast Aluminum AlSi9Cu3(Fe) Alloy

  • Péter SzalvaEmail author
  • Imre Norbert Orbulov
Article
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

High-pressure die casting (HPDC) is a widely used casting technology for product that is made of light metal such as aluminum alloy. During the die casting process, the molten metal is injected into a mold at high speed and solidified under high pressure. The amount of porosity in the cast part is an important question. Lots of technologies have been developed to minimize porosities, for example, vacuum-assisted high-pressure die casting process (VPDC). In this paper, AlSi9Cu3(Fe) aluminum alloy castings were produced by conventional HPDC with atmospheric venting and VPDC process under three different absolute cavity air pressures of 170 mbar, 90 mbar and 70 mbar at the cavity. The influence of absolute cavity air pressure on the porosity and on the mechanical properties of the castings was investigated and compared with conventional HPDC casting method. The results of the present study proved that the amount of porosity and the pore sizes in the castings can be significantly reduced from 1.10% at an atmospheric level to 0.47% at 70 mbar. This corresponds to 57% reduction. As a result, the mechanical properties are improved significantly, particularly, the tensile strength from 271.6 to 299.8 MPa, which corresponds to 10% increment and the elongation from 1.66 to 2.49%, which shows 50% increment. At lower absolute cavity air pressure, the entrapped gases become the final gas porosities in the die castings and show solidification shrinkage form inspected with scanning electron microscopy. In general, lower cavity air pressure contributes to reduce the pores, which improve the mechanical properties of die casting.

Keywords

HPDC VPDC mechanical properties porosity LOM SEM 

References

  1. 1.
    G. Tyler Miller Jr., S.E. Spoolman, Living in the Environment (Cengage Learning, Boston, 2011), p. 396Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    NADCA, Introduction to die casting. NADCA, (Arlington Heights, Illinois, 2007) pp. 7–15Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Jorstad, D. Apelian, Pressure assisted processes for high integrity aluminum castings. IJMC 2(1), 19–39 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03355420 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Xixi, Y. Hailin, Z. Xiangzhen, J. Shouxun, High strength and ductility aluminium alloy processed by high pressure die casting. J. Alloys Compd. 773, 86–96 (2018)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    ÖGI, HPDC-technology, Austrian Cooperative Research, Leoben (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Koru, O. Serçe, The effects of thermal and dynamical parameters and vacuum application on porosity in high-pressure die casting of A383 Al-alloy. IJMC 12(4), 797–813 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-018-0214-7 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Zyska, Z. Konopka, M. Lagiewka, M. Nadolski, Porosity of castings procedure by the vacuum assisted pressure die casting method. Found. Eng. 1, 125–130 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Lia, S.M. Xiong, Z. Guo, Improved mechanical properties in vacuum-assist high pressure die casting of AZ91D alloy. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 231, 1–7 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Wen-bo, Y. Zi-hao, G. Zhi-peng, X. Shou-mei, Characterization of A390 aluminum alloy procedure at different slow shot speeds using vacuum assisted high pressure die casting. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 27(12), 2529–2538 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    X.P. Niu, B.B. Hu, I. Pinwill, H. Li, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 105, 119–127 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Campbell, Castings (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2003), pp. 314–318Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Hufnagel, W. Hesse, Key to Aluminium Alloys (Aluminium-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 2008), p. 88Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.I.N. Korti, S. Abboudi, Effects of shot sleeve filling on evolution of the free surface and solidification in the high-pressure die casting machine. IJMC 11(2), 223 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-016-0051-5 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Thoma, W. Volk, R. Heid et al., Simulation-based prediction of the fracture elongation as a failure criterion for thin-walled high-pressure die casting components. IJMC 8(4), 47–54 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03355594 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    ISO 6892-1:2016: Metallic materials—Tensile testing—Part 1, Method of test at room temperature (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    BN-75/4051-10: Porosity of Casting by hydrostatic weighing (1975)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    N.A. Pratten, The precise measurement of the density of small samples. J. Mater. Sci. 16(7), 1737–1747 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Z. Shiwei, S. Kun, H. Feng, Z. Fan, A new dropper-type gas flow measuring method based on weighing principle. Vacuum 145, 203–208 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Hayu, H. Sutanto, Z. Ismail, Accurate density measurement of stainless steel weights by hydrostatic weighing system. Measurement 131, 120–124 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    EN 1706:2013-12: Aluminium and aluminium alloys—Castings: Chemical composition and mechanical properties (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    F.E. Jones, G.L. Harris, ITS-90 density of water formulation for volumetric standards calibration. J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 97(3), 336–340 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Maierhofer, P. Myrach, M. Röllig, F. Jonietz, B. Illerhaus, D. Meinel, U. Richter, R. Miksche, Characterization of pores in high pressure die cast aluminum using active thermography and computed tomography, in 42nd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, pp. 1–8 (2016)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Rotella, Y. Nadot, M. Piellard, R. Augustin, M. Fleuriot, Fatigue limit of a cast Al–Si–Mg alloy (A357-T6) with natural casting shrinkages using ASTM standard X-ray inspection. Int. J. Fatigue 114, 177–188 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    ASTM E505-15: Standard Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum and Magnesium Die Castings (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    U. Richter, S. Arendholz, R.R. Miksche, M. Rölling, C. Maierhofer, K. Eigenfeld, Porosity detection in high pressure die castings. Int. Found. Res. 1, 14–23 (2015)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Niklas, A. Bakedano, S. Orden, M. da Silva, E. Nogués, A.I. Fernández-Calco, Effect of microstructures and casting defects on the mechanical properties of secondary AlSi10MnMg(Fe) test parts manufactured by vacuum assisted high pressure die casting technology. Mater. Proc. 2(10), 4931–4938 (2015)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Wicke, A. Brueckner-Foit, T. Kristen, M. Zimmermann, F. Buelbuel, H.-J. Christ, Near-threshold crack extension mechanism in an aluminum alloy studied by sem and X-ray tomography. Int. J. Fatigue 113, 87–98 (2018)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Azizi, Investigation the controllable factors influencing the weight loss of grinding ball using SEM/EDX analysis and RSM model. Eng. Sci. Technol. Int. J. 18, 278–285 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Siot, C. Longuet, R. Léger, B. Otazaghine, P. Lenny, A.-S. Cari-Bretelle, N. Azéma, Correlation between process and silica dispersion/distribution into composite: impact on mechanical properties and Weibull statistical analysis. Polym. Testing 70, 92–101 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Hanxue, H. Mengyao, S. Chao, L. Peng, The influence of different vacuum degree on the porosity and mechanical properties of aluminum die casting. Vacuum 146, 278–281 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    X.G. Hu, Q. Zhu, S.P. Midson, H.V. Atkinson, H.B. Dong, Z. Zhang, Y.L. Kang, Blistering in semi-solid die casting of aluminum alloys and its avoidance. Acta Mater. 124, 446–455 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Q. Mingfan, K. Yonglin, T. Wenchuan, Q. Quanquan, L. Baoshun, Mictrostructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Rheo-HPDC a novel Al–8Si–Fe alloy. Mater. Lett. 213, 378–382 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Qiyao, Z. Haidong, L. Fangdong, Microstructures and properties of SiC particles reinforced aluminum-matrix composites fabricated by vacuum-assisted high pressure die casting. Material Science and Engineering: A 680, 270–277 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. Bin, J. Danyu, G. Jianghong, Is a three-parameter Weibull function really necessary for the characterization of the statistical variation of the strength of brittle ceramics? J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 38(4), 2234–2242 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A.H. Shevidi, R. Taghiabadi, A. Razaghian, Weibull analysis of effect of T6 heat treatment on fracture strength of AM60B magnesium alloy. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 28(1), 20–29 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M.V. Santosh, K.R. Suresh, S.K. Aithal, Mechanical characterization and microstructure analysis of Al C355.0 by sand casting, die casting and centrifugal casting techniques. Mater. Today Proc. 4(10), 10987–10993 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Bangyikhan, Effect of oxide film, fe-rich phase, porosity and their interactions on tensile properties of cast Al–Si–Mg alloys (Ph.D. thesis of the Faculty of Engineering of The University of Birmingham, 2005) pp. 45Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    D. C. Jiles, Introduction to the Principles of Materials Evaluation, Wolfson Center for Magnetic, (Institute for Advanced Materials and Energy Systems, Cardiff University, U.K., 2007) pp. 79–97Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Campbell, X. Cao, Oxide inclusion defects in Al–Si–Mg cast alloys. Can. Metall. Q. 44, 435–447 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. Yalçin, M. Koru, O. Ipek et al., Effect of injection parameters and vacuum on the strength and porosity amount of die-casted A380 alloy. IJMC 11(2), 195–206 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-016-0046-2 Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Z. Lijie, Y. Bing, F. Jian, K. Xiangyang, J. Haiyan, D. Wenjiang, Microstructure tensile properties and creep behavior of Al–12Si–3.5Cu–2Ni–0.8Mg alloy produced by different casting technologies. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 34(7), 1222–1228 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Foundry Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary
  2. 2.MTA-BME Lendület Composite Metal Foams Research GroupBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations