Advertisement

Journal of Quantitative Economics

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 215–236 | Cite as

A Study on Happiness and Related Factors Among Indian College Students

  • Bidisha ChakrabortyEmail author
  • Souparna MajiEmail author
  • Anamika Sen
  • Isha Mallik
  • Sayantan Baidya
  • Esha Dwibedi
Original Article

Abstract

Happiness is considered to be one of the ultimate goals of life. This paper studies the happiness of Indian college and university students aged between 18 and 24 years. It attempts to answer whether and to what extent happiness of a student is significantly related to aspects of social life such as time spent with family, friends, being in a relationship, logging into social networking sites; academic factors such as job prospects of the chosen field of study and academic environment; and other personal factors such as health condition, over thinking or dwelling on past bad memories, addiction to tobacco/drug/alcohol. Moreover, this paper also inquires about the relationship between a student’s average happiness with her gender as well as the income class to which she belongs. It has been observed that among different aspects of social life, time spent with family and friends are significant while logging into social networking site is found out to be insignificant. Also being in a relationship is significantly but negatively related to happiness for male students. Job Prospects of the current field of study is a highly significant covariate of happiness irrespective of the gender of the student. Among different aspects of the personal situation, dwelling on past bad memories decreases happiness of both male and female students. Addiction to tobacco/alcohol is a negative covariate of female happiness. Furthermore, income and gender are seen to play an insignificant role in the happiness of Indian college and university students.

Keywords

Happiness India Students Dummy regression OLS OLOGIT 

JEL classification

C21 D01 I31 

References

  1. Abdel-Khalek, A.M. 2004. Research note: happiness among Kuwaiti College Students. Journal of Happiness Studies 5 (1): 93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Khalek, A.M., and D. Lester. 2002. Manic-depressiveness, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, and suicidality in Kuwaiti College Students. Psychological Reports 90 (3 Pt 1): 1007–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abecia, D.R., M. Samong, L. Abella, F. Baldomero, A. Tamayo, and R. Gabronino. 2014. Measuring happiness of University Students. American Journal of Social Sciences 2 (3): 43–48.Google Scholar
  4. Argyle, M. 1989. The psychology of happiness. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Balatsky, G., and E. Diener. 1993. Subjective well-being among Russian students. Social Indicator Research 28: 225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertrand, M., and S. Mullainathan. 2001. Do people mean what they say? Implications for subjective survey data. American Economic Review, American Economic Association 91 (2): 67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanchflower, D.G., and A.J. Oswald. 2002. Well-being over time in Britain and the USA. Journal of Public Economics 88: 1359–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanchflower, D.G., and A.J. Oswald. 2004. Money, sex and happiness: an empirical study. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 106 (3): 393–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borghans, Lex, A. Lee Duckworth, J.J. Heckman, and B. Weel. 2008. The economics and psychology of personality traits. Journal of Human Resources 43 (4): 972–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooks, Arthur C. 2013. A Formula for Happiness, The New York Times, New York Edition, December 15, 2013.Google Scholar
  11. Chadda, R.K., and K. Sinha Deb. 2013. Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy. Indian Journal of Psychiatry 55 (6): 299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan, G., Miller, P.W., and M. Tcha. 2005. Happiness in university education. International Review of Economics and Education 4 (1): 20–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conlisk, J. 1996. Why bounded rationality? Journal of Economic Literature 34: 669–700.Google Scholar
  14. Costa, P.T., and R.R. McCrae. 1988. Personality in adulthood: a six-year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO personality inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54 (5): 853–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demirbatir, E., A. Helvaci, N. Yilmaz, and N. Bilgel. 2013. The psychological well-being, happiness and life-satisfaction of music students. Scientific Research, Psychology 4: 16–24.Google Scholar
  16. Diener, E. 1984. Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin 93: 542–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diener, E. 2003. The relationship between Income and Subjective Well-being- Relative or Absolute? Social Indicators Research 28: 195–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diener, E., and R. Biswas-Diener. 2008. Happiness ininji. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444305159.ch4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, E., and E.M. Suh. 2000. Culture and subjective well-being. USA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  20. Di Tella, R., R.J. MacCulloch, and A.J. Oswald. 2003. The macroeconomics? of happiness. Review of Economics and Statistics 85: 809–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duesenbery, J. 1949. Income, saving and the theory of consumer behaviour. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Easterlin, R.A. 1974. Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. In Nations and households in economic growth: essays in honor of moses, Abramovitz, ed. Paul A. David, and Melvin W. Reder. New York: Academic Press Inc.Google Scholar
  23. Easterlin, R.A. 1995. Will raising the income of all increase the happiness of all? Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 27: 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Easterlin, R.A. 2003. Building a better theory of well-being, Discussion Paper No. 742 (IZA, Bonn, Germany).Google Scholar
  25. Easterlin, R.A. 2004. The economics of happiness. Daedulus (American Academy of Arts and Sciences) 133 (2): 26–33.Google Scholar
  26. Francis, J.L., Yablon, B.Y., and Robbins, M. 2014. Religion and Happiness: a study among Female undergraduate students in Israel. International Journal of Jewish Education Research. Google Scholar
  27. Frank, R.H. 1997. The frame of reference as a public good. Economic Journal 107: 1832–1847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Frank, R.H. 1999. Luxury fever: money and happiness in an era of excess. Princeton and Oxford.Google Scholar
  29. Frey, B.S., and A. Stutzer. 2002. What can economists learn from happiness research? Journal of Economic Literature 40 (2): 402–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldings, H.J. 1954. On the avowal and projection of happiness. Journal of Personality 23: 30–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Graham, C. 2005. The Economics of happiness—insights on globalisation from a novel approach. World Economics 6 (3): 41–55.Google Scholar
  32. Graham, C. and S. Chattopadhyay. 2012. Gender and well-being around the world. Global Economy and Development 1 (2): 212–232.Google Scholar
  33. Goldsmith, Arthur, J. Veum, and W. Darity Jr. 1997. The impact of psychological capital on wages. Economic Inquiry 35: 815–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. HT-MaRS Happiness Survey. 2013. In pursuit of happiness, Hindustan Times, January 12, 2013.Google Scholar
  35. Hollander, H. 2001. On the validity of utility statements: standard theory versus Duesenberry’s. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 45: 227–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kahneman, D. 2003. Map of bounded rationality: psychology for behavioral economics. American Economic Review 93 (5): 1449–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kahneman, D., Krueger, A., Schkade, D., Schwarz, N., and Stone, A. A. 2006. Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion”, CEPS Working Paper No. 125, May 2006, Princeton University.Google Scholar
  38. Kenny, C. 1999. Does growth cause happiness, or does happiness cause growth? Kyklos 52 (1): 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. King, A.K., Vidourek, A.R., Merianos, L.A., and Singh, M. 2014. A study of stress, social support, and perceived happiness among college students. The Journal of Happiness and Well-being. Google Scholar
  40. Knight, J., Song, L., and Gunatilaka, R. 2007. Subjective well-being and its determinants in Rural China, Discussion Paper Series, University of OxfordGoogle Scholar
  41. Kross, E., P. Verduyn, E. Demirlap, J. Park, D. Seungjae Lee, L. Natalie, H. Shablack, J. Jonides, and O. Ybarra. 2013. Facebook use predicts decline in subjective wwell-being in young adults. PLoS One 8 (8): e69841.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lakshmanasamy, T. 2010. Are you satisfied with your Income? The Economics of Happiness in India. Journal of Quantitative Economics 8 (2): 115–141.Google Scholar
  43. Liberman, V., J.K. Boehm, S. Lyubomirsky, and L.D. Ross. 2009. Happiness and memory: affective significance of endowment and contrast. American Psychological Association.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016816.Google Scholar
  44. Liu, Yue, and M.S. Mohanty. 2015. Asymptotic variance-covariance matrices of two-stage estimators in the presence of continuous and binary dependent variables with an empirical application. Journal of Quantitative Economics 13: 53–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lockwood, N.R., Sharma, R., Kamath, R., and S. Williams. 2009. Perspectives on women in management in India, 1–12. Society for Human Resources Management, Alexandria, Virginia.Google Scholar
  46. Mahaarcha, W., and S. Kittisuksathit. 2010. Happiness of Thai youths in Kanchanaburi Province. NIDA Development Journal 50 (2): 2010.Google Scholar
  47. Mohanty, M. S. 2009. Effects of positive attitude on happiness and wage: evidence from the US data. Journal of Economic Psychology 30: 884–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mohanty, M.S. 2014. What determines happiness? Income or attitude: evidence from the US longitudinal data. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology and Economics 7: 80–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Myers, D. 2000. The Fund, Friends, and Faith of Happy People. American Psychologist 55 (1): 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Oswald, A.J. 1997. Happiness and economic performance. Economic Journal 107: 1815–1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pavot, W., and E. Diener. 1993. Review of the satisfaction with Life Scale. Psychological Assessment 5: 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Proto, E., Sgroi, D., and Oswald, A. J. 2010. Are happiness and productivity lower among university students with newly-divorced parents?, Institute for the study of Labour.Google Scholar
  53. Sher, L. 2004. Depression and alcoholism. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 97 (4): 237–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Simon, H. 1978. Rationality as a process and product of thought. American Economic Review 68: 1–16.Google Scholar
  55. Stevenson, B. and Wolfers, J. 2009. The paradox of declining female happiness, Working Paper 14969. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge MA 02138.Google Scholar
  56. Tiefenbach, T. and Kohlbacher, F. 2013. Happiness and life satisfaction in Japan by gender and age, Working Paper 13/2, German Institute for Japanese Studies (DIJ).Google Scholar
  57. Weaver, R.D. and Habibov, N.N. 2010. Are Canadian adolescents happy? A Gender-based Analysis of Nationally Representative Survey. US-China Education Review, 7(4 (Serial No.65).Google Scholar
  58. Yew Kwang, Ng. 1997. A case for happiness, cardinalism and interpersonal comparability. Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, 107(445), 1848–58, November.Google Scholar
  59. Zhou, Y. 2013. A comprehensive study of happiness among adults in China, Clemson University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Econometric Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Jawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations