Journal of Quantitative Economics

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 93–120 | Cite as

Globalisation and Gender Inequality: Evidence from Labour Market in India

  • Shamim Ara
Original Article


This paper examines quantitative and qualitative dimensions of employment issues in India from gender lens. Inequality in quantitative aspects have been analysed gender gap in work participation, composition and structure of employment. The study finds that female work participation in India has declined sharply despite faster economic growth and improvement in female literacy outcomes. The magnitude of decline is sharper in case of illiterate, women from less privileged class and rural backgrounds. Similarly, even after two decades of economic reform, female workers are highly concentrated in low productive, less remunerative and unpaid family labour category of self employment activities. Considering the qualitative dimension of jobs, the paper finds that the condition of female workers are more vulnerable as they are highly concentrated in informal sector and informal jobs with no employment security, no social security, and are being paid relatively lower wages compared to male workers in most of the sub-sector. The paper argues for an urgent policy intervention to ensure access to decent jobs and to provide protection to these vulnerably placed women workers.


Gender inequality Economic reform Quality of jobs Informalisation Job market segmentation Wage inequality 

JEL Classification

C83 C87 C88 J1 J31 



The Author is thankful to Prof. Arup Mitra and Dr. Atul Sood for their constructive comments and valuable suggestions on earlier draft.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Indian Econometric Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shamim Ara
    • 1
  1. 1.New DelhiIndia

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