Advertisement

Bonded-particle discrete element modeling of mechanical behaviors of interlayered rock mass under loading and unloading conditions

  • L. X. Xiong
  • Z. Y. XuEmail author
  • T. B. Li
  • Y. Zhang
Original Article

Abstract

Interlayered rock mass composed of green schist and marble is widely observed in China, such as the Jinping II hydropower project site in Sichuan Province. Its mechanical behaviors are of importance for the overall project stability. Unfortunately, for most cases, field or laboratory tests seeking to truly represent the mechanical behaviors of interlayered rock mass under dynamic loading condition is very difficult. In order to understand its mechanical performances under loading and unloading conditions, a numerical modeling was conducted to analyze its mechanical characteristics using soft package PFC2D. The numerical results show that (a) the inclined angle of interlayered rock mass has a major effect on the strength of rock specimen under triaxial compression loading, and the minimal compressive strength was generally observed at an orientation angle of 30°–45°. However, the influence of marble component on the strength of interlayered rock mass is not clear when the inclined angle is in the range of 30°–45°. (b) When neither the confining pressure nor the marble composition is varied, few cracks were generated at inclined angle of 45° than that at other angles under triaxial compression loading condition, and the micro-crack is basically characterized by shearing failure. (c) When the inclined angle increases from 0° to 90°, the minimum principal stress increases first and then decreases under unloading confining pressure, and the minimum principal stress reaches peak at an inclined angle of 45°. (d) Crack development and failure mode of interlayered rock mass are mainly influenced by the rock material properties, particles arrangement and rock layer distribution, whilst the stress path has no effect on crack development and failure mode of interlayered rock mass.

Keywords

Interlayered rock mass Loading and unloading test Characteristics of strength PFC numerical Simulation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin (China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Grant No. IWHR-SKL-201708), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education (Grant No. KLE-TJGE-B1505), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41541021, 41230635).

References

  1. Chen J, Jiang DY, Ren S (2016) Comparison of the characteristics of rock salt exposed to loading and unloading of confining pressures. Acta Geotech 11:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Du K, Li XB, Li DY, Weng L (2015) Failure properties of rocks in true triaxial unloading compression test. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 25:571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gong WL, Peng YY, Wang H, He MC, Sousa LR, Wang J (2015) Fracture angle analysis of rock burst faulting planes based on true-triaxial experiment. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48:1017–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Huang RQ, Huang D (2014) Evolution of rock cracks under unloading condition. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47:453–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Huang RQ, Wang XN, Chan LS (2001) Triaxial unloading test of rocks and its implication for rock burst. Bull Eng Geol Environ 60:37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Li HZ, Xia CC (2007) Study on marble unloading mechanical properties of Jinping hydropower station under high geostress conditions. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 26(10):2104–2109 [in Chinese] Google Scholar
  7. Li XP, Hang Z, Wang B, Xiao TL (2013) Mechanical properties of deep-buried marble material under loading and unloading tests. J Wuhan Univ Technol Mater Sci Ed 28(3):514–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li XB, Du K, Li DY (2015) True triaxial strength and failure modes of cubic rock specimens with unloading the minor principal stress. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48:2185–2196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Liu QQ, Cheng YP, Jin K, Tu QY, Zhao W, Zhang R (2017) Effect of confining pressure unloading on strength reduction of soft coal in borehole stability analysis. Environ Earth Sci 76:173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mehranpour MH, Kulatilake PHSW (2016) Comparison of six major intact rock failure criteria using a particle flow approach under true-triaxial stress condition. Geomech Geophys Geo-energy Geo-resour 2:203–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mohammad HM, Pinnaduwa HSWK (2016) Comparison of six major intact rock failure criteria using a particle flow approach under true-triaxial stress condition. Geomech Geophys Geo-energy Geo-resour 2:203–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Qiu SL, Feng XT (2014) An experimental study on the pre-peak unloading damage evolution of marble. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47:401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Slobodan Z, Zvonko T, Borko M (2018) Creep behaviour of a layered soft rock around the tunnel opening. In: European conference on geotechnical engineering 07–09 June 2018, Skopje, R. Macedonia, No. 143, pp 1057–1062Google Scholar
  14. Wang B, Zhu JB, Wu AQ, Hu JM, Xiong ZM (2008) Experimental study on mechanical properties of Jinping marble under loading and unloading stress paths. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 27(10):2138–2145 [in Chinese] Google Scholar
  15. Wang B, Zhu JB, Wu AQ, Liu XH (2010) Experimental validation of nonlinear strength property of rock under high geostress. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 29(3):542–548 [in Chinese] Google Scholar
  16. Wang RH, Jiang YZ, Yang C, Huang F, Wang YX (2018) A nonlinear creep damage model of layered rock under unloading condition. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, HindawiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Xiong LX, Li TB, Yang LD (2014a) Biaxial compression creep test on green-schist considering the effects of water content and anisotropy. KSCE J Civ Eng 18(1):103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Xiong LX, Yu LJ, Yang CB, Li TB (2014b) Research on mechanical characteristics of interlayered rock mass under unloading condition. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 33(S2):3545–3554 [in Chinese] Google Scholar
  19. Yang SQ, Huang YH (2014) Particle flow study on strength and meso-mechanism of Brazilian splitting test for jointed rock mass. Acta Mech Sin 30(4):547–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yang SQ, Huang YH, Ranjith PG, Jiao YY, Ji J (2015) Discrete element modeling on the crack evolution behavior of brittle sandstone containing three fissures under uniaxial compression. Acta Mech Sin 31(6):871–889MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. Zhang HW, Elsworth D, Wan ZJ (2018) Failure response of composite rock-coal samples. Geomech Geophys Geo-energy Geo-resour 4:175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhao JJ, Zhang Y (2017) Studies on rock failure of layered rock in underground mining-face and control techniques. Geomech Geophys Geo-energy Geo-resour 3:405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhao XG, Wang J, Cai M, Cheng C, Ma LK, Su R, Zhao F, Li DJ (2014) Influence of unloading rate on the strainburst characteristics of Beishan granite under true-triaxial unloading conditions. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47:467–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhao GY, Dai B, Dong LJ, Yang C (2015) Energy conversion of rocks in process of unloading confining pressure under different unloading paths. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 25:1626–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. X. Xiong
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Z. Y. Xu
    • 4
    Email author
  • T. B. Li
    • 3
  • Y. Zhang
    • 5
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River BasinChina Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower ResearchBeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of EducationTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment ProtectionChengdu University of TechnologyChengduChina
  4. 4.Program of Water Science and Policy, College of Earth, Ocean, and EnvironmentUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  5. 5.Terracon ConsultantsLouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations