Socio-demographic Characteristics and Use of Pap Smear for Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women of Eastern Part of India
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Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in India with high incidence and mortality rates. The aim of the study was to examine the association of risk with cervical cancer by Pap smear screening approach.
This study design is based on retrospective data collection from case files of Cancer Detection Centre (CDC) who attended during the period of January 1995 to September 2016. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and Pearson’s chi-square test.
The study included 1195 women of whom 31.4% were aged 26–35 years; 91.2% Hindus; 80.3% housewives; 64.8% school educated; 85.8% married; 97.9% non-vegetarian; and 53.9% small family size. The above parameters were highly significant with the clinical diagnosis of cervical lesions by Pap test (p < 0.05). Addictions like betel leaf and smoking/chewing tobacco have shown significant correlation with cytological test (p < 0.05). Gynaecologic history including menarche, menstrual type, menopause, parity, abortion and mode of delivery had strong correlation with Pap test (p < 0.05). The chief complaints, clinical examination of cervix, clinical diagnosis and size of uterus had strong correlation with cytological findings (p = 0.001).
The findings of the present study indicate that demographic characteristics, addictions, gynaecological and obstetric history and medical characteristics are strongly associated with increased risk of cervical cancer in Indian women. Furthermore, Pap smear is an effective screening method in low-cost infrastructure and for early detection.
KeywordsCervical cancer Socio-demographic characteristics Pap test
We like to thank friends and well wishers for their encouragement and frequent selfless help for pursuing the study. The authors would like to thank all the patients and their family members for their participation, support and cooperation. We would also like to thank Director, CNCI, for his overall support. This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest among the authors.
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