Advertisement

Retrospective Observational Study of Surgically Treated Gynaecological Malignancies at a Tertiary Care Centre in Bihar

  • Sangeeta PankajEmail author
  • Syed Nazneen
  • Vijayanand Choudhary
  • Jaya Kumari
  • Anjili Kumari
  • Anita Kumari
Original Article

Abstract

Non-communicable diseases form a major bulk of patients in our country and are now the target of policy makers in India. Cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality and needs to be tackled aggressively. Female genital tract malignancies have a worldwide distribution, but the distribution and frequency vary from one region to another. The objective of this study is to determine the patterns and frequencies of female genital tract malignancies in our population. The current study is a retrospective analysis of all operated cases of gynaecological malignancies from January 2012 to December 2016 at a tertiary care centre in Bihar.

Methodology

Out of 264 cases operated, 150 cases (56.81%) were of ovarian cancer, 83 (31.44%) were of cervical cancer, 26 (9.84%) were of endometrial cancer, 3 (1.14%) were of vulvar cancer, 1 (0.38%) was of choriocarcinoma and 1 (0.38%) was of fallopian tube carcinoma.

Results

A total of 264 cases of gynaecological malignancies underwent surgery. Ovarian cancer was the most common (56.81%), followed by cervical cancer (31.44%). The age of occurrence of gynaecological malignancies ranged from 9 to 70 years, and the mean age of presentation was 44 years. Peak frequency is observed in the fifth decade of life. Serous cyst adenocarcinoma was the most common histopathological type in ovarian cancer, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common in cervical and vulvar cancers and endometrioid adenocarcinoma was the most common type in endometrial cancer. Many rare histopathological variants were noted in our study.

Conclusion

As ovarian cancer is tricky, is hard to spot and spreads faster than any other cancer in the female reproductive system, the awareness of risk factors and that of vague symptoms can lead to early detection. Cervical cancer is preventable. To bring down its incidence rate, the Indian government, like its Western counterparts, needs to implement strict screening guidelines and strengthen our primary health centres and community health centres with facilities for screening.

Keywords

Gynaecological malignancies Ovarian cancer Cervical cancer Adenocarcinoma squamous cell carcinoma 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest associated with publication of this work; no significant financial support/funding for this work has been received to influence the outcome. The manuscript is read and approved, and consent is given by all the authors. We give our permission to reproduce any material of the article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Iyoke CA, Ugwu GO. Burden of gynaecological cancers in developing countries. World J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2(1):1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Norman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide.: International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Economist Intelligence Unit. Breakaway: The Global Burden of Cancer-Challenges and Opportunities. The Economist 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Devi KU. Current status of the gynaecological cancer care in India. J Gynecol Oncol. 2009;20:77–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarkar M, Konar H, Raut DK. Gynecological malignancies: epidemiological characteristics of the patients in a tertiary care hospital in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:2997–3004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sarkar M, Konar H, Raut DK. Knowledge and health care-seeking behavior in relation to gynecological malignancies in India: a study of the patients with gynecological malignancies in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. J Cancer Educ. 2011;26:348–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ellenson LH, Pirog EC. The female genital tract. In: Kumar V, Abbas KA, Fausto N, Aster JC, editors. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2010. p. 1005–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agarwal S, Malhotra KP, Sinha S, Rajaram S. Profile of gynecologic malignancies reported at a tertiary care center in India over the past decade: comparative evaluation with international data. Indian J Cancer. 2012;49:298–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rahman M, Siddika S, Mazid M. Gynaecological cancers in surgical specimens—a hospital based analysis. Med Today. 2015;26(2):78–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crowder S, Tuller E. Small cell carcinoma of the female genital tract. Semin Oncol. 2007;34:57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mondal SK, Banyopadhyay R, Nag DR, Roychowdhury S, Mondal PK, Sinha SK. Histologic pattern, bilaterality and clinical evaluation of 957 ovarian neoplasms: a 10-year study in a tertiary hospital of Eastern India. J Cancer Res Ther. 2011;7:433–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murthy NS, Shalini S, Suman G, Pruthvish S, Mathew A. Changing trends in incidence of ovarian cancer-the Indian scenario. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10:1025–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Basu P, De P, Mandal S, Ray K, Biswas J. Study of ‘patterns of care’ of ovarian cancer patients in a specialized cancer institute in Kolkata, eastern India. Indian J Cancer. 2009;46:28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rathod PS, Reddihalli PV, Krishnappa S, Devi UK, Bafna UD. A retrospective clinicopathological study of 131 cases with endometrial cancers—is it possible to define the role of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in low-resource settings? Indian J Cancer. 2014;51:54–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shirley MH, Barnes I, Sayeed S, Finlayson A and Ali R. Incidence of breast and gynaecological cancers by ethnic group in England, 2001–2007: a descriptive study. BMC Cancer 2014, 14:979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Gynecologic Oncologists of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sangeeta Pankaj
    • 1
    Email author
  • Syed Nazneen
    • 1
  • Vijayanand Choudhary
    • 2
  • Jaya Kumari
    • 1
  • Anjili Kumari
    • 1
  • Anita Kumari
    • 1
  1. 1.Gynecological Oncology, RCCIGIMSPatnaIndia
  2. 2.PathologyIGIMSPatnaIndia

Personalised recommendations