Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Investigating groundwater level fluctuations via analyzing groundwater hydrograph: a case study of Naqadeh plain in north-west of Iran

  • 7 Accesses

Abstract

Due to population growth, agriculture development, climate change and droughts, the accurate knowledge of water resources, especially groundwater, and their fluctuations are necessary and inevitable for proper and comprehensive management of water. In this study, using the data of 33 observation wells, we investigated groundwater fluctuations in Naqadeh plain in north-west of Iran during a 15-year statistical period (2001–2015) through analyzing the slope and area under the curve (AUC) of groundwater hydrograph. The results indicated according to the hydrograph of the 15-year time period, the groundwater level has decreased by 2.21 m, indicating an annual average of 15.8 cm. The correlation coefficient between the factors affecting the groundwater level confirmed the direct (R =  + 0.648) and the inverse (R = − 0.193) relations of precipitation and evaporation with the groundwater level, respectively, with a 2-month delay. The highest and lowest slopes regarding groundwater fluctuations occurred in 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 water years, respectively. Also, the maximum and minimum areas under the hydrograph curve, i.e., consequently, the highest and lowest water content, were related to 2006–2007 and 2011–2012 water years, respectively. The area under the hydrograph curve (the water content of the aquifer of the target area) had a descending trend during the statistical period. The slopes of the rising and recession limbs of the hydrograph curve indicated an ascending trend, and the discharge rate of the aquifer was 2.7 times higher than the recharge rate which calls for an urgent and proper management of aquifer operation in the future.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Alizadeh A (2012) Principles of applied hydrology, 6th edn. Emam Reza University, Iran

  2. Almedeij J, Al-Ruwaih F (2006) Periodic behavior of groundwater level fluctuations in residential areas. J Hydrol 328:677–684

  3. Anonymous (2006) Report of water balance in the Naqadeh plain. Regional Water Organization of West Azarbaijan Province. (In Persian)

  4. Bacani A, Posavec K, Parlov J (2010) Groundwater quantity in the Zagreb aquifer. In: XXXVIII IAH congress groundwater quality sustainability, Krakow, Poland, 12–17 Sept 2010, pp 87–92

  5. Das A, Datta B (2001) Application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quantity and quality management. Sadhana 26(4):293–316

  6. Ebrahimi H, Ghazavi R, Karimi H (2016) Estimation of groundwater recharge from the rainfall and irrigation in an arid environment using inverse modeling approach and RS. Water Resour Manag 30(6):1939–1951

  7. Jamshidzadeh Z, Mirbagheri SA (2011) Evaluation of groundwater quantity and quality in the Kashan Basin, Central Iran. Desalination 270(1–3):23–30

  8. Lemieux JM, Sudicky EA, Peltier WR, Tarasov L (2008) Dynamics of groundwater recharge and seepage over the Canadian landscape during the Wisconsinian glaciation. J Geophys Res Earth 113:F01011. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JF000838

  9. Li F, Feng P, Zhang W, Zhang T (2013) An integrated groundwater management mode based on control indexes of groundwater quantity and level. Water Resour Manag 27(9):3273–3292

  10. Luczaj J, Masarik K (2015) Groundwater quantity and quality issues in a water-rich region: examples from Wisconsin, USA. Resources 4(2):323–357

  11. Shahid S, Hazarika MK (2009) Groundwater drought in the northwestern districts of Bangladesh. Water Resour Manag 24:1989–2006

  12. Theodossiou N, Latinopoulos P (2006) Evaluation and optimisation of groundwater observation networks using the Kriging methodology. Environ Modell Softw 21(7):991–1000

  13. Voss KA, Famiglietti JS, Lo M, De Linage C, Rodell M, Swenson SC (2013) Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region. Water Resour Res 49(2):904–914

  14. Wang G, Zhao W (2015) The spatio-temporal variability of groundwater depth in a typical desert-oasis ecotone. J Earth Syst Sci 124(4):799–806

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Sh. Shahmohammadi-Kalalagh.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shahmohammadi-Kalalagh, S., Taran, F. & Nasiri, H. Investigating groundwater level fluctuations via analyzing groundwater hydrograph: a case study of Naqadeh plain in north-west of Iran. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 6, 8 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-020-00370-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Area under the curve
  • Discharge
  • Hydrograph
  • Naqadeh plain
  • Recharge