Sustainable Water Resources Management

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 1887–1901 | Cite as

An integrated approach for identification of waterlogged areas using RS and GIS technique and groundwater modelling

  • Suvrat KaushikEmail author
  • Pankaj R. Dhote
  • Praveen K. Thakur
  • Bhaskar R. Nikam
  • Shiv Prasad Aggarwal
Original Article


An integrated approach using remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) and groundwater modelling (GM) has been used for waterlogged areas identification in the Rohtak district of Haryana State, India. Surface waterlogged areas were delineated using optical remote sensing satellite data-based normalized difference water index (NDWI) technique. Sentinel 2 MSS (optical data) images pertaining to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were acquired and processed to extract water pixels. To overcome the limitation of false positives and cloud penetration associated with optical images, water pixels were also extracted using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of Sentinel 1A. Thresholding of NDWI for optical images and sigma naught for SAR images was done using the respective histograms to distinguish water and terrestrial features. Surface waterlogged areas were delineated from the generated combined water body raster based on the visual interpretation technique in a GIS environment. Sub-surface waterlogging conditions were simulated for the same year using process-based groundwater model MODFLOW. A conceptual model was created to simulate groundwater system based on flow processes, hydrogeological characteristics, aquifer hydraulic properties, source and sinks and boundary conditions. Sub-surface waterlogged areas were delineated based on depth to water table classification criteria. It was found that surface waterlogged area varies from 0.55 to 1.0% of the district area from pre-monsoon to post-monsoon season, while the percentage of sub-surface waterlogged areas was higher, varying from 9.1 to 21.6%, respectively. Statistics also shows that most of the surface waterlogged areas do not fall under the areas plagued by sub-surface waterlogging.


RS and GIS Waterlogging NDWI SAR Groundwater modelling 



Authors thank Director, IIRS, ISRO Dr A. Senthil Kumar for providing facilities, support and suggestions for completion of this work. Authors are also grateful to Central Groundwater Board India, Alaska Satellite Facility, USGS and Google for providing groundwater observation data, topographic data and high-resolution base layers. This work is done under ISRO-EOAM (R&D) funded project on “Ensemble hydrological modelling approach for integrated water balance studies for dynamic water resources assessment in geospatial environment for Indian River basins.”

Supplementary material

40899_2019_342_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2067 kb)


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Resources DepartmentIndian Institute of Remote Sensing, Indian Space Research OrganizationDehradunIndia

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