Advertisement

Sustainable Water Resources Management

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 1641–1649 | Cite as

Assessment of the impact of landfill leachate on groundwater and surrounding surface water: a case study of Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

  • Tewodros AlemayehuEmail author
  • Gebreslassie Mebrahtu
  • Amanual Hadera
  • Dawit N. Bekele
Original Article
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of leachate from municipal solid waste to groundwater and surface water quality surrounding the landfill site in Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. The landfill is situated in carbonate geological formation where the effect of uncontrolled leachate release into the environment is evident at short distance of the site. The analysis of leachate sample showed elevated electrical conductivity (5280 μS/cm), chloride (256 mg/l), nitrate (92.6 mg/l) COD (1208 mg/l) and BOD (483 mg/l) in dry period. Samples of stream and groundwater in the vicinity of the landfill are characterized by high concentrations of TDS, bicarbonate, sulphate, chloride and nitrate. The elevated levels of these ions are attributed to seepage of landfill leachate with considerable input from local geology. The impact of leachate on water resources appeared to be higher in wet season when contaminant dispersion is accelerated by maximum infiltration and surface runoff. The elevated total dissolved solid and nitrate levels have proved that the water quality is unreliable for domestic water supply. Moreover, BOD (1.9–7.5 mg/l) and COD (42–160 mg/l) concentrations in the water samples were found to be exceeding the typical normal ranges, and were significantly higher in the surface water compared to the groundwater. This study highlights the need of leachate treatment mechanisms as remedial measures to prevent water pollution.

Keywords

Groundwater Landfill Leachate Mekelle Municipal solid waste Water pollution 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Mekelle University is duly acknowledged for financial support of this research project. The authors would like to thank the Department of Chemistry and School of Earth Sciences for providing laboratory facilities for this work. We appreciate the anonymous reviewer for the valuable comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Abu-Rukah Y, Al-Kofahi O (2001) The assessment of the effect of landfill leachate on ground-water quality—a case study. El-Akader landfill site—north Jordan. J Arid Environ 49(3):615–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alemayehu T (2001) The impact of uncontrolled waste disposal on surface water quality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. SINET Ethiop J Sci 24(1):93–104Google Scholar
  3. Chalmin P, Gaillochet C (2009) From waste to resource, an abstract of world waste survey. Cyclope, Veolia Environmental Services, Edition Economica, ParisGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen PH (1996) Assessment of leachates from sanitary landfills: impact of age, rainfall, and treatment. Environ Int 22(2):225–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. El-Salam MMA, Abu-Zuid GI (2015) Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: a case study in Egypt. J Adv Res 6(4):579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fan HJ, Shu HY, Yang HS, Chen WC (2006) Characteristics of landfill leachates in central Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 361(1):25–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Girmay E, Ayenew T, Kebede S, Alene M, Wohnlich S, Wisotzky F (2015) Conceptual groundwater flow model of the Mekelle Paleozoic–Mesozoic sedimentary outlier and surroundings (northern Ethiopia) using environmental isotopes and dissolved ions. Hydrogeol J 23(4):649–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Global Methane Initiative (2011) Ethiopia solid waste and landfill [country profile and action plan]: community development research. https://www.globalmethane.org/documents/landfills_cap_ethiopia.pdf. Accessed 28 May 2018
  9. Kalčíková G, Vávrová M, Zagorc-Končan J, Žgajnar Gotvajn A (2011) Seasonal variations in municipal landfill leachate quality. Manag Environ Qual Int J 22(5):612–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kamble BS, Saxena PR (2017) Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India. Appl Water Sci 7(6):3333–3343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kawai M, Purwanti I, Nagao N, Slamet A, Hermana J, Toda T (2012) Seasonal variation in chemical properties and degradability by anaerobic digestion of landfill leachate at Benowo in Surabaya, Indonesia. J Environ Manag 110:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kjeldsen P, Barlaz MA, Rooker AP, Baun A, Ledin A, Christensen TH (2002) Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 32(4):297–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kulikowska D, Klimiuk E (2008) The effect of landfill age on municipal leachate composition. Biores Technol 99(13):5981–5985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Longe E, Enekwechi L (2007) Investigation on potential groundwater impacts and influence of local hydrogeology on natural attenuation of leachate at a municipal landfill. Int J Environ Sci Technol 4(1):133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mahmud K, Hossain MdD, Shams S (2012) Different treatment strategies for highly polluted landfill leachate in developing countries. Waste Manag 32:2096–2105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maqbool F, Bhatti Z, Malik A, Pervez A, Mahmood Q (2011) Effect of landfill leachate on the stream water quality. Int J Environ Res 5(2):491–500Google Scholar
  17. Modak P, Jiemian Y, Hongyuan Y, Mohanty C (2012) Shanghai manual—a guide for sustainable urban development in the 21st century. United Nations, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  18. Mor S, Ravindra K, Dahiya R, Chandra A (2006) Leachate characterization and assessment of groundwater pollution near municipal solid waste landfill site. Environ Monit Assess 118(1):435–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Najafzadeh M, Zeinolabedini M (2018) Derivation of optimal equations for prediction of sewage sludge quantity using wavelet conjunction models: an environmental assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(23):22931–22943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rapti-Caputo D, Vaccaro C (2006) Geochemical evidences of landfill leachate in groundwater. Eng Geol 85(1):111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Regassa N, Sundaraa RD, Seboka BB (2011) Challenges and opportunities in municipal solid waste management: the case of Addis Ababa city, central Ethiopia. J Hum Ecol 33(3):179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sudarsan JS, Roy RL, Baskar G, Deeptha VT, Nithiyanantham S (2015) Domestic wastewater treatment performance using constructed wetland. Sustain Water Resour Manag 1(2):89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tesfamichael G (2009) Regional groundwater flow modeling of the Geba Basin, northern Ethiopia. Ph.D. thesis. Vrije Universiteit, Brussel, p 250Google Scholar
  24. Vadillo I, Carrasco F, Andreo B, de Torres AG, Bosch C (1999) Chemical composition of landfill leachate in a karst area with a Mediterranean climate (Marbella, southern Spain). Environ Geol 37(4):326–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vasanthi P, Kaliappan S, Srinivasaraghavan R (2008) Impact of poor solid waste management on ground water. Environ Monit Assess 143(1):227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zeinolabedini M, Najafzadeh M (2019) Comparative study of different wavelet-based neural network models to predict sewage sludge quantity in wastewater treatment plant. Environ Monit Assess 191(163):1–25Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth SciencesMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia
  3. 3.Global Centre for Environmental RemediationUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia

Personalised recommendations