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Sustainable Water Resources Management

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 1495–1509 | Cite as

Occurrence, management and protection of mineral and thermal waters in some volcanic areas of Italy: current knowledge and future directions

  • A. Baiocchi
  • F. Formica
  • F. Lotti
  • L. Pianese
  • V. PiscopoEmail author
  • G. Summa
Original Article

Abstract

This study provides a review of the issues of occurrence, management and protection of mineral and thermal waters in volcanic areas of central and southern Italy. These waters have a great economic importance being widely used for therapeutic and water bottling purposes, although they have a limited influence on the total yield of hydrogeological systems (generally below 17%). The present study examines the hydrogeological environment where mineral and thermal waters originate, focusing on the hydrostratigraphic and structural conditions generating different hydrochemical facies. The complexity of the examined volcanic systems makes the interpretation of the hydrochemical facies and the building of reliable hydrogeological models often difficult. Mineral and thermal waters (up to 100 °C) originate from different flow paths and interactions among waters with different qualities. In this framework, current European, national and regional regulations do not specify the criteria of abstraction and management. The examined cases show how the management and protection of mineral and thermal waters are inseparable from the management of the other groundwater resources used for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes, being the various hydrochemical facies related to different circuits within the same system. To maintain different water qualities and permit a sustainable multipurpose use of groundwater resources, a participatory and unitary management of the aquifer system seems to be the most appropriate approach.

Keywords

Mineral water Thermal water Volcanic aquifer Italy 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Baiocchi
    • 1
  • F. Formica
    • 2
  • F. Lotti
    • 1
  • L. Pianese
    • 2
  • V. Piscopo
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. Summa
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Ecological and Biological SciencesTuscia UniversityViterboItaly
  2. 2.NapoliItaly
  3. 3.Regional Environmental Protection Agency of BasilicataMateraItaly

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