Advertisement

Adolescent Research Review

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 357–368 | Cite as

Measuring Repression in Residential Youth Care: Conceptualization, Development and Validation of the Institutional Repression Questionnaire

  • S. de ValkEmail author
  • C. Kuiper
  • G. H. P. van der Helm
  • A. J. J. A. Maas
  • G. J. J. M. Stams
Quantitative Review

Abstract

Repression in residential youth care institutions threatens youth’s positive development. When youth experience arbitrary use of power, structure, or coercion, this may cause demotivation, reactance or aggression, and diminished chances of rehabilitation in youth. Because institutional repression may be hard to recognize, a valid and reliable measurement instrument is necessary to signal repression in residential institutions. This article outlines the conceptualization, development and validation of the Institutional Repression Questionnaire in a sample of 180 youth (aged 12–24, 32% female) staying in open, secure, and forensic residential youth care institutions. The Institutional Repression Questionnaire is a self-report questionnaire, designed to measure five dimensions of repression: abuse of power, injustice, lack of autonomy, lack of meaning, and dehumanization. The multicomponent structure was confirmed in a confirmatory factor analysis, resulting in 24 items in five subscales: Abuse of Power, Justice, Lack of Autonomy, Meaning, and Humanization. One open-ended question is part of the questionnaire to invite youth to disclose more extreme cases of repression. Convergent validity was established via correlations between the Institutional Repression Questionnaire and the Prison Group Climate Inventory—as a measure of living group climate in residential institutions—and the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale-Intellectual Disability—as a measure of self-determination. The five Institutional Repression Questionnaire subscales demonstrated good internal consistency. The study provides preliminary evidence to support validity and reliability of an adolescent self-report questionnaire of perceived institutional repression as a multidimensional construct. Residential youth care institutions can use outcomes of the Institutional Repression Questionnaire to improve their living group climate.

Keywords

Residential institutions Youth care Repression Questionnaire development Psychometric properties 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all the youths for their willingness to fill in the questionnaires and the research group Residential Youth Care of the University of Applied Sciences in Leiden for their support in obtaining the questionnaires.

Author Contributions

SdV conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, performed the statistical analysis, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript; CK conceived of the study, participated in the coordination and in the interpretation of the results, helped to draft the manuscript and critically reviewed the manuscript; PvdH conceived of the study, helped to draft the manuscript and critically reviewed the implications; AM conceived of the study, critically reviewed the study design and organizational implications; GS conceived of the study, performed the statistical analysis, participated in the interpretation of the results, and critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This study was made possible by the support of the Reformed Civil Orphanage (in Dutch: Gereformeerd Burger Weeshuis), Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare to have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Andriessen, D., Onstenk, J., Delnooz, P., Smeijsters, H., & Peij, S. (2010). Gedragscode praktijkgericht onderzoek voor het hbo. Retrieved May 2, 2018, from https://follio.eu/i/zPx66o7bKrXX?lang=nl.
  2. Barriga, A. Q., & Landau, J. R. (2000). Cognitive distortions and problem behavior in adolescents. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27, 36–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barton, W. H., & Mackin, J. R. (2012). Towards a strength-based juvenile correctional facility: Sustainability and effects of an institutional transformation. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 51(7), 435–452.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2012.700688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beijersbergen, K. (2017). Ontwikkeling van de Leefklimaat Vragenlijst Penitentiaire Inrichtingen. Leiden: Universiteit Leiden en Dienst Justitiele Inrichtingen.Google Scholar
  5. Boone, M., Althoff, M., & Koenraadt, F. (2015). Het leefklimaat in justitiële inrichtingen. Den Haag: Boom.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Busch, A. B., & Shore, M. F. (2000). Seclusion and restraint: A review of recent literature. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 8(5), 261–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Commissie Geweld Jeugdzorg. (2018). Interviews over ervaringen in de jeugdzorg die plaatsvonden of begonnen voor 1945. Retrieved February 4, 2018, from https://www.commissiegeweldjeugdzorg.nl/actueel/nieuws/interviews-over-ervaringen-met-geweld-in-dejeugdzorg-in-de-periode-1940-1945.aspx.
  9. Commissie Samson. (2012). Omringd door zorg, toch niet veilig. Seksueel misbruik van door de overheid uit huis geplaatste kinderen, 1945 tot heden. Amsterdam: Boom Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  10. Dahl, I. (2017, December). Honderden kinderen belanden zonder toezicht in de isoleercel. Nu komt de minister met een reactie [Hundreds of children are separated without supervision. Now the Minister gives a reaction]. De Correspondent. Retrieved January 11, 2018, from https://decorrespondent.nl/7684/honderdenkinderen-belanden-zonder-toezicht-in-de-isoleercel-nu-komt-de-minister-met-een-reactie/1489798977524-46fe6537.
  11. De Decker, A., Lemmens, L., Van der Helm, P., Bruckers, L., Molenberghs, G., & Tremmery, S. (2018). The relation between aggression and the living group climate in a forensic treatment unit for adolescents: A pilot study. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62(7), 1821–1837.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X17712347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. De Valk, S., Kuiper, C., Van der Helm, G. H. P., Maas, A. J. J. A., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2016). Repression in residential youth care: A scoping review. Adolescent Research Review, 1(3), 195–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-016-0029-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Valk, S., Kuiper, C., Van der Helm, G. H. P., Maas, A. J. J. A., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2017). Repression in residential youth care: A qualitative study examining the experiences of adolescents in open, secure and forensic institutions. Journal of Adolescent Research.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558417719188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Valk, S., Van Der Helm, G. H. P., Beld, M., Schaftenaar, P., Kuiper, C., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2015). Does punishment in secure residential youth care work? An overview of the evidence. Journal of Childrens Services.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JCS-11-2014-0048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen. (2016). Justitiële Jeugdinrichtingen [Correctional Institutions for Juvenile Offenders; Fact sheet]. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.dji.nl/binaries/dji-infosheet-jeugdinrichtingen-juli-2016-copy_tcm41-121765.pdf.
  16. Eltink, E. M. A., Hoeve, T., De Jongh, J., Van der Helm, T., Wissink, G. H. P., I. B., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2018). Stability and change of adolescents’ aggressive behavior in residential youth care. Child and Youth Care Forum, 47(2), 199–217.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-017-9425-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. European Convention on Human Rights, art. 5, September. (1950). http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf.
  18. Festinger, L. A. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  20. Frielink, N., Schuengel, C., & Embregts, P. J. C. M. (2016). Psychometric properties of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction And Frustration Scale-Intellectual Disability (BPNSFS-ID). European Journal of Psychological Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gibbs, J. J. (1991). Environmental congruence and symptoms of psychopathology: A further exploration of the effects of exposure to the jail environment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 18, 351–374.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854891018003007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2013). Measuring self-serving cognitive distortions: A meta-analysis of the psychometric properties of the How I Think Questionnaire (HIT). European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10(4), 510–517.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2012.707312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goffman, E. (1961). On the characteristics of total institutions. In E. Goffman (Ed.), Asylums: Essays on the social situations of mental patients and other inmates (pp. 1–124). New York: Doubleday Anchor.Google Scholar
  24. Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 252–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heynen, E., Van der Helm, G. H. P., Cima, M., Stams, G. J. J. M., & Korebrits, A. (2016). The relation between living group climate, aggression and callous unemotional traits in delinquent boys in detention. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(15), 1701–1718.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X16630543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Heynen, E. J. E., Van der Helm, G. H. P., Stams, G. J. J. M., & Korebrits, A. M. (2014). Measuring group climate in a German Youth Prison: A German validation of the Prison Group Climate Instrument. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 14(1), 45–54.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15228932.2013.868176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Höfte, S. J. C., Van der Helm, G. H. P., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2012). Het internationaal recht en knelpunten in de gesloten jeugdzorg: Adviezen voor de praktijk. Justitiële Verkenningen, 38(6), 84–99.Google Scholar
  28. Hoogsteder, L. M., Wissink, I. B., Stams, G. J. J. M., Van Horn, J. E., & Hendriks, J. (2014). A validation study of the Brief Irrational Thoughts Inventory. Journal of Rational - Emotive and Cognitive—Behavior Therapy, 32(3), 216–232.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-014-0190-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jeugdzorg Nederland. (2017). Factsheet JeugdzorgPlus plaatsingsgegevens 2017–1. Retrieved March 6, 2018, from https://www.jeugdzorgnederland.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/JeugdzorgPlus-2017def.pdf.
  30. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd edn.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Lammers, J., & Stapel, D. A. (2011). Power increases dehumanization. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14(1), 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li, C. H. (2016). Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data: Comparing robust maximum likelihood and diagonally weighted least squares. Behavior Research Methods, 48, 936–949.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-015-0619-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liebling, A., Hulley, S., & Crewe, B. (2011). Conceptualising and measuring the quality of prison life. In D. Gadd, S. Karstedt & S. Messner (Eds.), The sage handbook of criminological research methods. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Lipsey, M. W. (2009). The primary factors that characterize effective interventions with juvenile offenders: A meta-analytic overview. Victims & Offenders, 4(2), 124–147.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15564880802612573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moos, R. H. (1975). Evaluating correctional and community settings. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Nieuwenhuijzen, M. Van, & Vriens, A. (2012). (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(2), 426–434.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.09.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Parhar, K. K., Wormith, J. S., Derkzen, D. M., & Beauregard, A. M. (2008). Offender coercion in treatment: A meta-analysis of effectiveness. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(9), 1109–1135.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854808320169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paterson, B., Mcintosh, I., Wilkinson, D., Mccomish, S., & Smith, I. (2013). Corrupted cultures in mental health inpatient settings. Is restraint reduction the answer? Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2012.01918.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roisman, G. I., Masten, A. S., Coatsworth, J. D., & Tellegen, A. (2004). Salient and emerging developmental tasks in the transition to adulthood. Child Development, 75(1), 123–133.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00658.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ros, N., Van der Helm, G. H. P., Wissink, I., Stams, G. J. J. M., & Schaftenaar, P. (2013). Institutional climate and aggression in a secure psychiatric setting. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 24(6), 713–727.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14789949.2013.848460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  42. Seiffge-Krenke, I., & Gelhaar, T. (2008). Does successful attainment of developmental tasks lead to happiness and success in later developmental tasks? A test of Havighurst’s (1948) theses. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 33–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.04.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Stams, G. J. J. M., & Van der Helm, G. H. P. (2017). What works in residential programs for aggressive and violent youth? In P. Sturmey (Ed.), The Wiley Handbook on Violence and Aggression. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Streiner, D. L. (2003). Starting at the beginning: An introduction to coefficient alpha and internal consistency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80(1), 99–103.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA8001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th edn.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  46. Ten Brummelaar, M. D. C., Gerrits, G. M., Post, W. J., Harder, A. T., Kalverboer, M. E., Pultrum, T. A., & Knorth, E. J. (2014). Perceptions of participation: The views of male young people on the care process in a juvenile justice facility. International Journal of Child and Family Welfare, 15(1/2), 53–75.Google Scholar
  47. Ten Brummelaar, M. D. C., Harder, A. T., Kalverboer, M. E., Post, W. J., & Knorth, E. J. (2017). Participation of youth in decision-making procedures during residential care: A narrative review. Child and Family Social Work, 23, 33–44.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tonkin, M. (2015). A review of questionnaire measures for assessing the social climate in prisons and forensic psychiatric hospitals. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(12), 1376–1405.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X15578834.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, art. 37, November. (1989). http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx.
  50. Van de Heuvel, C. (2018, February 14). Jeugdpsychiaters slaan alarm over isoleren kinderen jeugdzorg [Youth psychiatrists warn against isolating children in youth care]. Retrieved February 15, 2018, from https://eenvandaag.avrotros.nl/item/jeugdpsychiaters-slaan-alarm-over-isoleren-kinderen-jeugdzorg/.
  51. Van den Tillaart, J., Eltink, E., Stams, G.-J., Van der Helm, P., & Wissink, I. (2018). Aggressive incidents in residential youth care. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X18758898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van der Helm, G. H. P. (2016). Doorontwikkeling leefklimaatvragenlijst: Van PGCI naar GCI (12+). Retrieved February 9, 2018, from https://www.hsleiden.nl/binaries/content/assets/hsl/lectoraten/residentiele-jeugdzorg/doorontwikkeling-leefklimaatvragenlijst.pdf.
  53. Van der Helm, G. H. P., Kuiper, C. H. Z., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (in press). Treatment motivation in secure juvenile facilities: A test for self-determination theory. Child and Youth Services Review.Google Scholar
  54. Van der Helm, G. H. P., Stams, G. J., J., M., & Van der Laan, P. H. (2011). Measuring group climate in a forensic setting. The Prison Journal, 19, 158–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Van der Helm, G. H. P., & Vandevelde, S. (2018). Probleemgedrag is vaak te begrijpen. Tijdschrift Voor Orthopedagogiek: Onderzoek En Praktijk.Google Scholar
  56. Vansteenkiste, M., & Soenens, B. (2013). Vitamines van groei: Over de motiverende rol van ouders in de opvoeding. Gent: Academia Press.Google Scholar
  57. Whittaker, J. K., Holmes, L., Valle, D., Ainsworth, J. F., Andreassen, F., Anglin, T., J., et al (2016). Therapeutic residential care for children and youth: A consensus statement of the international work group on therapeutic residential care. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 33(2), 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wright, K. N. (1985). Developing the Prison Environment Inventory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 22(3), 257–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Knowledge and Consultancy CentreGoudaThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Leiden (Youth Expert Centre) and Horizon Youth Care and EducationUniversity of Applied SciencesRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Leiden (Youth Expert Centre)University of Applied SciencesLeidenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Organization and Personnel ManagementErasmus University, RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Forensic Child and Youth Care SciencesUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations