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Adolescent Research Review

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 341–356 | Cite as

The Effect of Visual Stressors on Adolescents’ Neural Response: A Review of Laboratory Research

  • Orianna DuncanEmail author
  • Emily C. Cook
  • Donald Pimental
  • Kristen Wilkinson
  • Amber Champagne
Systematic Review

Abstract

Laboratory models that help us understand the neural mechanisms associated with how stress, particularly interpersonal stress, affects children’s and adolescents’ emotions are paramount but are limited if that understanding lacks validity in adolescents’ daily lives. There is a lack of research that addresses the ecological validity of visual stimuli to induce stress in participants while measuring participants’ neural response to that stimuli. This approach is needed if we are to identify the neural mechanisms that underlie the effect of stressful events on individuals’ emotional functioning. The current study conducted a systematic literature review to identify visual tasks that have been used in laboratory settings to induce stress in participants. The most frequent tasks identified were developed to induce peer rejection/exclusion in youth (e.g., Chatroom and Cyberball). These tasks were generally effective at bringing about a neural response in areas of the brain traditionally associated with social cognitive processing, such as the cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, insula, and striatum. In particular, the cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex are associated with the Social Information Processing Network. Almost entirely absent from the literature are systematic evaluations of ecological validity and parent–child based visual stimuli that approximate the stress that adolescents might experience in their relationships with parents. The present article highlights trends and gaps in the current research, and examines the ecological validity of current stimuli used as laboratory based stressors, which can be used to fuel further investigation into adolescent neural response to stimuli, and further evaluation of the ecological validity of tasks.

Keywords

Emotions Ecological Validity Neural Response Stress Visual Stimuli 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Support for this project was provided by the Institutional Development Award (IDeA) Network for Biomedical Research Excellence from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant number P20GM103430.

Authors Contributions

ECC conceived of the study, OD, DP, KW, and AC assisted in the finding of articles, and OD, DP, KW, and AC assisted in the initial write up of the entire article. ECC and OD continued to make edits and revise the article, until its submission. All authors have read and approved of the final submission of this article.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Orianna Duncan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emily C. Cook
    • 1
  • Donald Pimental
    • 2
  • Kristen Wilkinson
    • 1
  • Amber Champagne
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyRhode Island CollegeProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts AmherstAmherstUSA
  3. 3.William James CollegeNewtonUSA

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