Geotechnical Investigations on Marine Clay Stabilized Using Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Cement

  • H. K. PreethamEmail author
  • Sitaram Nayak
Original Paper


Marine clay is present along the coastal region all around the world. This soil is highly problematic and unfit to support any engineering structures. They are characterized by high liquid limit, high plasticity index with low shear strength and high compressibility. The primary by-product generated from the ferrous industry is granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), and CaO present in GBFS acts as a binding agent. This paper describes the detailed experimental results by incorporation of GBFS and cement to the marine clay. Soil was replaced by GBFS in various percentages (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and addition of cement (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) in percentage of dry weight of soil. Soil and various mixtures are examined for its geotechnical properties, which include specific gravity, consistency limits, compaction characteristics, unconfined compression strength and strength parameters. From the unconfined compression test results, 40% GBFS replacing the marine clay is concluded as the optimum mix. Improvement in the strength is due to the formation of CSH, CAH, CASH and other cementitious compounds which are observed in SEM and XRD studies. From the investigation, it is concluded that GBFS with or without cement can be used as a potential stabilizer for soft marine clay.


Marine clay Granulated blast furnace slag Shear strength SEM XRD 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology KarnatakaSurathkalIndia

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