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Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 282–295 | Cite as

Cold Temperature Effects on Consistent and Architecturally Hybridized Woven Kevlar/Epoxy Laminates

  • Paul V. Cavallaro
  • Andrew W. Hulton
  • Eric A. Warner
  • Mahmoud M. Salama
Article
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

The primary objectives of the present experimental research were to characterize and compare the interlaminar mode-I fracture toughness, crack growth and flexural stiffness behaviors of Kevlar KM2-Plus® fiber/epoxy matrix laminates constructed of various woven fabric architectures including plain, 2 × 2 twill and 4H satin weaves at cold [− 46 °C (− 50 °F)] and room [20 °C (68 °F)] temperatures. Secondary objectives were to evaluate and compare the fracture and flexure behaviors for two types of woven laminate constructions referred to as consistent and hybridized laminates. Consistent laminates were constructed with a single fabric weave style throughout all plies and were representative of laminate configurations used in traditional composites design. The hybridized laminates incorporated a mixture of different ply weave styles arranged in a strategic manner to achieve functionally-graded attributes and performance benefits such as enhanced damage tolerance, load carrying capacities, residual strengths and dynamic energy absorption/dissipation levels. The experimental results demonstrated that the interlaminar mode-I critical strain energy release rates, GIc and flexure moduli, Eflex were temperature dependent and that the hybridized laminate provided the optimal combination of highest fracture toughness and bending stiffness with the least sensitivity to temperature. The concept of hybridized laminate architectures can be used to mitigate temperature effects on fracture and flexural stiffness in addition to increasing damage tolerance, load carrying capacities, flexure stiffness, fracture toughness, residual strengths and dynamic energy absorption/dissipation.

Keywords

Composites Fracture toughness Strain energy release rate Crack growth stability Flexure stiffness 

Abbreviations

a

Crack length

ao

Initial debond length

α1, α2

Coefficients of thermal expansion

C

Celsius

Cwarp

Crimp in warp fibers

Cweft

Crimp in weft fibers

CG

Crimp-gradient

CM

Compliance method

da/dN

Fatigue crack growth rate

da/dtavg

Averaged crack growth rate

DCB

Double cantilever beam

δ

Extension

E

Modulus of elasticity

Eflex

Flexure modulus

ξc

Crimp ratio

FEA

Finite element analysis

Gc_eff

Effective critical strain energy release rate

GI, GII, GIII

Mode-specific strain energy release rates

GIc, GIIc, GIIIc

Mode-specific critical strain energy release rates

gpd

Grams per denier

ILSS

Interlaminar shear strength

lb

Pound force

L

Length

LEFM

Linear elastic fracture mechanics

MBT

Modified beam theory

MMB

Mixed mode bending

N

Number of fatigue cycles

ng

Weave index

P

Applied force

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

SYM

Symmetric

t

Time

t

Thickness

T

Temperature

UNDEX

Underwater explosion

VCCT

Virtual Crack Closure Technique

Vf

Fiber volume ratio

w

Width

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding support received from the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport’s Chief Technology Office and the laminate fabrication support received from Core Composites Inc., Bristol, RI.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division NewportNewportUSA
  2. 2.JPS Composite Materials CorpAndersonUSA

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