Estimating Sample Heterogeneity and Expected Scatter Due to Cracking in Packed Powder Samples Using a Two-Phase Model
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High-precision Hugoniot measurements of heterogeneous materials are a key tool in creating accurate equations of state, but such measurements are prone to larger uncertainties than their homogeneous counterparts. To efficiently reduce these uncertainties one must estimate the relative contributions of different error sources. Sample cracking is one likely source. Here we estimate its contribution through modeling, using computed tomography scans of powdered single crystal quartz samples to estimate typical packing variation within and between samples. Samples were prepared using the same materials and methods. Cracks were prominent in the samples. We describe a simple model to estimate shock transit time variation for a single shot due to cracking, and estimate that up to 3% variation can be attributed to these structures. This suggests that decreasing variation requires addressing such packing heterogeneities during target fabrication rather than experimental diagnostics.
KeywordsHugoniot Uncertainties Gas guns Granular media Shock physics
We thank Hector Lorenzana, Eric Herbold, Mike Homel, Jon Lind, Dory Miller, and Rick Kraus for their useful discussions that helped shape this paper. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This research used resources of the Advanced Light Source, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231. MCA acknowledges additional support from LLNL’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) under grant 16-ERD-010. LLNL-JRNL-758019.
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