Neighborhood Through a Familial Lens: Examining the Intergenerational Transmission of Collective Efficacy
Despite the rich history of empirical research on neighborhood collective efficacy, studies considering the factors that contribute to collective efficacy formation at the individual level have yet to account for family members’ perceptions of collective efficacy. This study examines whether individuals form perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy through knowledge of their geographic locales or via the intra-familial transmission of perceptions of collective efficacy.
This study appends information from the following three distinct samples of adults in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): 349 young adult respondents, their primary caregivers (n = 349), and an independent sample of over 8000 adults distributed across 146 neighborhoods. Interviews with respondents (average age 20 years; 53.87% female) and their primary caregivers were conducted from 2000 to 2002. Regression analysis adjusting for clustering and mediation macros was utilized to examine the research questions.
At baseline, neighborhood collective efficacy was associated with respondents’ perceptions of collective efficacy. The impact of neighborhood collective efficacy, however, was mediated completely by parents’ perceptions of collective efficacy. Parents’ perceptions of collective efficacy, family support, and concentrated disadvantage were the strongest predictors of respondents’ perceptions of collective efficacy.
Findings suggest that neighborhood collective efficacy can be altered through family processes as well as by changing the structural characteristics of broader social settings. Increasing collective efficacy—and social capital more generally—may be best facilitated intergenerationally from parents to their children.
Keywordscontext neighborhood perceptions collective efficacy Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
- 6.Björklund, A., & Jäntti, M. (2009). Intergenerational income mobility and the role of family background. In B. Nolan, W. Salverda, & T. M. Smeeding (Eds.), Oxford handbook of economic inequality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- 8.Blau, P. M. (1977). Inequality and heterogeneity: a primitive theory of social structure. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- 13.Christensen, A., & Margolin, G. (1988). Conflict and alliance in distressed and nondistressed families. In R. A. Hinde & J. Stevension-Hinde (Eds.), Relationships within families: mutual influences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- 27.Fernandez, R., Fogli, A., & Olivetti, C. (2004). Preference formation and the rise of women's labor force participation: evidence from WWII. NBER working paper series no. w10589.Google Scholar
- 30.Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Redwood: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- 37.Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Cook, W. L. (2006). Dyadic data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- 53.Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- 56.Sampson, R. J. (2006a). Collective efficacy theory: Lessons learned and directions for future inquiry. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: the status of criminological theory. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
- 57.Sampson, R. J. (2006b). Great American City: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
- 58.Sampson, R. J. (2012). Great American City: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- 65.Solon, G. (1999). Intergenerational mobility in the labor market. Handbook of Labor Economics (Vol. 3, pp. 1761–1800).Google Scholar
- 69.The White House (2014). Remarks by the President on “My brother’s keeper” initiative [press release]. Retrieved from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/02/27/remarks-president-my-brothers-keeper-initiative.