Criminal Justice Contact Across Generations: Assessing the Intergenerational Labeling Hypothesis

  • Megan Bears AugustynEmail author
  • Jeffrey T. Ward
  • Marvin D. Krohn
  • Beidi Dong



The present study assesses the intergenerational labeling hypothesis and examines whether the relationship between a child’s involuntary contact with the police and subsequent offending depends on parental arrest history (and its timing in the life course of the child) and parent sex.


Using data from 312 parent–child dyads from the Rochester Youth Development Study and Rochester Intergenerational Study, generalized linear regression models estimate the main and interactive effects of a child’s involuntary contact and parental arrest history on subsequent delinquency as well as potential mechanisms for deviance amplification.


Main effects are consistent with labeling theory and moderation analyses reveal that the impact of involuntary contact on subsequent delinquency depends on parental arrest history. More specifically, contact with the police on subsequent offending is greater when the focal parent has an arrest history, regardless of when the most recent arrest occurs in the life course of the child. However, some differences in the magnitude of the exacerbating effect of recent parental arrest emerged. Results also speak to potential mechanisms across mother–child and father–child dyads with respect to deviance amplification.


This research supports the life-course principles of “linked lives” and “timing in lives” and their application to labeling theory in an intergenerational context. To reduce deviance amplification, special attention should be paid to youth who experience a police contact in the context of a parental arrest history.


Life course Deviance amplification Intergenerational arrest Labeling theory 



Support for the Rochester Youth Development Study has been provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (R01CE001572), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2006-JW-BX-0074, 86-JN-CX-0007, 96-MU-FX-0014, 2004-MU-FX-0062), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA020195, R01DA005512), the National Science Foundation (SBR-9123299), and the National Institute of Mental Health (R01MH56486, R01MH63386). Work on this project was also aided by grants to the Center for Social and Demographic Analysis at the University at Albany from NICHD (P30HD32041) and NSF (SBR-9512290).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    Achen, C. H. 2001. Why lagged dependent variables can suppress the explanatory power of other independent variables. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the political methodology section of the American Political Science Association at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ai, C., & Norton, E. C. (2003). Interaction terms in logit and probit models. Economics Letters, 80(1), 123–129.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexander, J. F., Waldron, H. B., Robbins, M. S., & Neeb, A. A. (2013). Functional family therapy for adolescent behavior problems. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychological Association. (2015) Who are family caregivers? Available online at
  5. 5.
    Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2014). The psychology of criminal conduct. Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Augustyn, M. B., & Ward, J. T. (2015). Exploring the sanction–crime relationship through a lens of procedural justice. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(6), 470–479.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Augustyn, M. B., Ward, J. T., & Krohn, M. D. (2017). Exploring intergenerational continuity in gang membership. Journal of Crime and Justice, 40(3), 252–274.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bailey, J. A., Hill, K. G., Oesterle, S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2006). Linking substance use and problem behavior across three generations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 273–292.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bailey, J. A., Hill, K. G., Oesterle, S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2009). Parenting practices and problem behavior across three generations: monitoring, harsh discipline and drug use in the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1214–1226.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barnes, J. C., Jorgensen, C., Beaver, K. M., Boutwell, B. B., & Wright, J. P. (2015). Arrest prevalence in a national sample of adults: the role of sex and race/ethnicity. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(3), 457–465.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barrick, K. (2014). A review of prior tests of labeling theory. In D. P. Farrington & J. Murray (Eds.), Labeling theory: empirical tests. Advances in criminological theory. Volume 18: (pp. 89–112). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Becker, H. (1963). Outsiders: studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bendixen, M., Endresen, I. M., & Olweus, D. (2003). Variety and frequency scales of antisocial involvement: which one is better? Legal and Criminological Psychology, 8(2), 135–150.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bernburg, J. G., & Krohn, M. D. (2003). Labeling, life chances, and adult crime: the direct and indirect effects of official intervention in adolescence on crime in early adulthood. Criminology, 41, 1287–1317.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bernburg, J. G., Krohn, M. D., & Rivera, C. J. (2006). Official labeling, criminal embeddedness, and subsequent delinquency: a longitudinal test of labeling theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43, 67–88.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Besemer, S., & Farrington, D. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour: conviction trajectories of fathers and their children. European Journal of Criminology, 9(2), 120–141. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Besemer, S., Farrington, D. P., & Bijleveld, C. C. (2013). Official bias in intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. British Journal of Criminology, 53(3), 438–455.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Besemer, S., Ahmad, S. I., Hinshaw, S. P., & Farrington, D. P. (2017a). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the intergenerational transmission of criminal behavior. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 37, 161–178.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Besemer, S., Farrington, D. P., & Bijleveld, C. C. J. H. (2017b). Labeling and intergenerational transmission of crime: the interaction between criminal justice intervention and a convicted parent. PLoS One, 12, e0172419. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Besjes, G., & Van Gaalen, R. (2008). Jong geleerd, fout gedaan? Bevolkingstrends, 56, 23–31.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Biglan, P. A., Brennan, S. L. F., & Holder, H. D. (2004). Helping adolescents at risk: prevention of multiple problem behaviors. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame, and reintegration. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brame, R., Paternoster, R., Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (1998). Testing for the equality of maximum-likelihood regression coefficients between two independent equations. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 14(3), 245–261.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brame, R., Bushway, S., Paternoster, R., & Turner, M. (2014). Demographic patterns of cumulative arrest prevalence by ages 18 and 23. Crime & Delinquency, 60(3), 471–486. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buis, M. L. (2010). Stata tip 87: Interpretation of interactions in nonlinear models. The stata journal, 10(2), 305–308.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bushway, S. (1998). The impact of an arrest on the job stability of young white American men. The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(4), 454–479. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Capaldi, D. M., Pears, K. C., Kerr, D. C. R., Owen, L. D., & Kim, H. K. (2012). Growth in externalizing and internalizing problems in childhood: a prospective study of psychopathology across three generations. Child Development, 833, 1945–1959.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Thornton, A., Freedman, D., Amell, J. W., Harrington, H., ..., Silva, P. A. (1996). The life history calendar: a research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 6(2), 101–114.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chiricos, T., Barrick, K., Bales, W., & Bontrager, S. (2007). The labeling of convicted felons and its consequences for recidivism. Criminology, 45, 547–581.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ciaravolo, E.B. (2011). Once a criminal, always a criminal: how do individual responses to formal labeling affect future behavior? A comprehensive evaluation of labeling theory (Doctoral dissertation). College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Collins, S. E., Lonczak, H. S., & Clifasefi, S. L. (2017). Seattle’s Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD): program effects on recidivism outcomes. Evaluation and Program Planning, 64, 49–56.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cullen, F. T. (1994). Social support as an organizing concept for criminology: Presidential address to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Justice Quarterly, 11(4), 527–559.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davies, S., & Tanner, J. (2003). The long arm of the law: effects of labeling on employment. The Sociological Quarterly, 44(3), 385–404. Scholar
  34. 34.
    DiIulio, J. (1995). Arresting ideas. Policy Review, 12(74) Retrieved from Accessed 1 Dec 2018.
  35. 35.
    Dong, B., & Krohn, M. D. (2017). The protective effects of family support on the relationship between official intervention and general delinquency across the life course. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 3(1), 39–61.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eichelsheim, V. I., & van de Weijer, S. G. A. (Eds.). (2018). Intergenerational continuity of criminal and antisocial behavior: an international overview of studies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Elder, G. H., Jr. (1985). Perspectives on the life course. In G. H. Elder Jr. (Ed.), Life course dynamics (pp. 23–49). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Elder, G.H. Jr. (1997). Life course and human development. In R.M. Lerner (Ed.) Handbook of child psychology, Volume 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 939–991) New York, Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Elliott, D. S., & Ageton, S. S. (1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 45, 95–110.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Epstein, M., Hill, K. G., Bailey, J. A., & Hawkins, J. D. (2013). The effect of general and drug specific family environments on comorbid and drug specific problem behavior: a longitudinal examination. Developmental Psychology, 49, 1151–1164.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Farrington, D. P. (1986). Age and crime. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 7, pp. 189–250). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Farrington, D. P. (2011a). Families and crime. In J. Q. Wilson & J. Petersilia (Eds.), Crime and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Farrington, D. P. (2011b). Families and crime. Crime and Public Policy, 130–157.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Farrington, D. P., Barnes, G., & Lambert, S. (1996). The concentration of offending in families. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 1, 47–63.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., & Jolliffe, D. (2008). The age-crime curve in reported offending. In R. Loeber, D. P. Farrington, M. Stouthamer-Loeber, & H. R. White (Eds.), Violence and serious theft: development and prediction from childhood to adulthood (pp. 77–104). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Federal Interagency Working Group for Children of Incarcerated Parents. (2013). Promoting Social and Emotional Well-Being for Children ofIncarcerated ParentsAProduct of the Federal Interagency Working GroupforChildren of Incarcerated Parents. Washington DC: National Institute of Corrections.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Greene, J. R. (2014). Zero Tolerance and Policing. In M. D. Reisig & R. J. Kane (Eds.), The OxfordHandbook of Police and Policing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goldscheider, F., Bernhardt, E., & Lappegård, T. (2015). The gender revolution: a framework for understanding changing family and demographic behavior. Population and Development Review, 41(2), 207–239. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Grogger, J. (1995). The effect of arrests on the employment and earnings of youn. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(1), 51–71. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hagan, J., & McCarthy, B. (1997). Intergenerational sanction sequences and trajectories of street-crime amplification. In I. Gotlib & B. Wheaton (Eds.), Stress and adversity in the life course (pp. 73–90). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hagan, J., & Palloni, A. (1990). The social reproduction of a criminal class in working-class London, circa 1950-1980. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 265–299.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hay, C., Stults, B., & Restivo, E. (2012). Suppressing the harmful effects of key risk factors: results from the Children at Risk Experimental Intervention. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 1088–1106.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Haynie, D. L., & Osgood, D. W. (2005). Reconsidering peers and delinquency: how do peers matter? Social Forces, 84(2), 1109–1130.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hirschfield, P. J. (2008). The declining significance of delinquent labels in disadvantaged urban communities. Sociological Forum, 23, 575–601.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hirschi, T. (1980). Labeling theory and juvenile delinquency: an assessment of the evidence. In W. R. Gove (Ed.), The labeling of deviance: evaluating a perspective (pp. 181–204). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hjalmarsson, R., & Linquist, M. J. (2012). Like godfather, like son: exploring the intergenerational nature of crime. Journal of Human Resources, 47, 550–582.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Holzer, H. J., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. A. (2004). How willing are employers to hire ex-offenders? Focus, 23, 40–43.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hudson, W. (1982). The clinical measurement package: A field manual. Homewood: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Huizinga, D., & Henry, K. L. (2008). The effect of arrest and justice system sanctions on subsequent behavior: findings from longitudinal and other studies. In A. M. Liberman (Ed.), The long view of crime: a synthesis of longitudinal research (pp. 220–254). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jackson, D. B., & Hay, C. (2013). The conditional impact of official labeling on subsequent delinquency: considering the attenuating role of family attachment. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50, 300–322.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Johnson, L. M., Simons, R. L., & Conger, R. (2004). Criminal justice system involvement and continuity of youth crime: A longitudinal analysis. Youth & Society, 36(1), 3-29.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kjellstrand, J., & Eddy, J. (2011). Parental incarceration during childhood, family context, and youth problem behavior across adolescence. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 50(1), 18–36. Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kurlychek, M., Brame, R., & Bushway, S. (2007). Enduring risk? Old criminal records and predictions of future criminal involvement. Crime & Delinquency, 53(1), 64–83. Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lemert, E. M. (1951). Social pathology: a systematic approach to the theory of sociopathic behavior. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lemert, E. M. (1967). Human deviance, social problems, and social control. Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liberman, A. K., Kirk, D. S., & Kim, K. (2014). Labeling effects of first juvenile arrests: secondary deviance and secondary sanctioning. Criminology, 52, 345–370.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Link, B. G., Cullen, F. T., Struening, E., Shrout, P. E., & Dohrenwend, B. P. (1989). A modified labeling theory approach to mental disorders: an empirical assessment. American Sociological Review, 54, 400–423.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Livingston, G. (2014). Growing number of dads home with the kids. Washington, DC: PEW Research Center Available online at Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lopes, G., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Schmidt, N. M., Vásquez, B. E., & Bernburg, J. G. (2012). Labeling and cumulative disadvantage: the impact of formal police intervention on life chances and crime during emerging adulthood. Crime & Delinquency, 58, 456–488.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lynch, J. P., & Sabol, W. J. (1997). Did getting tough on crime pay? (Crime Policy Report no. 1). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mead, G. H. (1918). The psychology of punitive justice. American Journal of Sociology, 23, 577–602.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Morris, R. G., & Piquero, A. R. (2013). For whom do sanctions deter and label? Justice Quarterly, 30, 837–868.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Morris, N. A., & Slocum, L. A. (2010). The validity of self-reported prevalence, frequency, and timing of arrest: an evaluation of data collected using a life event calendar. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 47(2), 210–240.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Murray, J., Blokland, A., Farrington, D. P., & Theobald, D. (2014). Long-term effects of conviction and incarceration on men in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. In D. P. Farrington and J. Murray (Eds.), Labeling theory: empirical tests. Advances in criminology theory (Vol 18, pp. 209–235). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nagin, D. S., & Smith, D. A. (1990). Participation in and frequency of delinquent behavior: a test for structural differences. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 6(4), 335–356.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record 1. American Journal of Sociology, 108(5), 937–975. Scholar
  80. 80.
    Parker, K., & Wang, W. (2013). Modern parenthood. Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project, 14.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Paternoster, R., & Brame, R. (1997). Multiple routes to delinquency? A test of developmental and general theories of crime. Criminology, 35(1), 49–84.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Paternoster, R., & Iovanni, L. (1989). The labeling perspective and delinquency: an elaboration of the theory and assessment of the evidence. Justice Quarterly, 6, 359–394.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Phillips, S. D., & Erkanli, A. (2008). Differences in patterns of maternal arrest and the parent, family, and child problems encountered in working with families. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 157–172.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pridemore, W. A., Makel, M. C., & Plucker, J. A. (2018). Replication in criminology and the social sciences. Annual Review of Criminology, 1, 19–38.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Restivo, E., & Lanier, M. M. (2015). Measuring the contextual effects and mitigating factors of labeling theory. Justice Quarterly, 32, 116–141.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Roberts, J., Horney, J., Piquero, A., & Weisburd, D. (2010). The life event calendar method in criminological research. In Handbook of quantitative criminology (pp. 289–312). New York, NY: Springer. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rowe, D. C., & Farrington, D. P. (1997). The familial transmission of criminal conviction. Criminology, 35, 177–201.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H., (1997). A life-course theory of cumulative disadvantage and the stability of delinquency. In T. P. Thornberry (Ed.), Developmental theories of crime and delinquency. Advances in criminological theory, Volume 7 (pp. 133–162). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schmidt, N. M., Lopes, G., Krohn, M. D., & Lizotte, A. J. (2015). Getting caught and getting hitched: an assessment of the relationship between police intervention, life chances, and romantic unions. Justice Quarterly, 32, 976–1005.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schur, E. (1973). Radical nonintervention: rethinking the delinquency problem. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shang, S., Nesson, E., & Fan, M. (2018). Interaction terms in Poisson and log linear regression models. Bulletin of Economic Research, 70(1), E89–E96.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sherman, L. W. (1993). Defiance, deterrence, and irrelevance: a theory of the criminal sanction. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 445–473.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Skardhamar, T. (2009). Family dissolution and children’s criminal careers. European Journal of Criminology, 6, 203–223.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Skiba, R. J. (2014). The failure of zero tolerance. Reclaiming children and youth, 22(4), 27.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Skiba, R. J., & Peterson, R. L. (2000). School discipline at a crossroads: From zero tolerance to early response. Exceptional children, 66(3), 335–346.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Slocum, L. A., & Wiley, S. A. (2018). “Experience of the expected?” Race and ethnicity differences in the effects of police contact on youth. Criminology, 56(2), 402–432.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Slocum, L. A., Ann Wiley, S., & Esbensen, F. A. (2016). The importance of being satisfied: a longitudinal exploration of police contact, procedural injustice, and subsequent delinquency. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(1), 7–26.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    StataCorp. (2015). Stata statistical software: Release 15.1. College Station, TX: Author.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stine, R. A. (1995). Graphical interpretation of variance inflation factors. The American Statistician, 49(1), 53–56.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sweeten, G. (2012). Scaling criminal offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28(3), 533–557.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Thornberry, T. P. (2005). Explaining multiple patterns of offending across the life course and across generations. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 602, 156–195.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Thornberry, T. P. (2009). The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree (or does it?): intergenerational patterns of antisocial behavior-the American Society of Criminology 2008 Sutherland address. Criminology, 47, 297–325.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (2001). The development of delinquency: an interactional perspective. In S. O. White (Ed.), Handbook of youth and justice (pp. 289–305). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (2005). Applying interactional theory to the explanation of continuity and change in antisocial behavior. In D. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental & life-course theories of offending (pp. 183–210). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Thornberry, T. P., Freeman-Gallant, A., Lizotte, A. J., Krohn, M. D., & Smith, C. A. (2003). Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 171–184.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Thornberry, T. P., Freeman-Gallant, A., & Lovegrove, P. J. (2009). Intergenerational linkages in antisocial behavior. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 19, 80–93.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Thornberry, T. P., Henry, K. L., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., & Nadel, E. L. (2018). Key findings from the Rochester intergenerational study. Intergenerational continuity of criminal and antisocial behavior: an international overview of current studies. London, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tittle, C. R. (1980). Labeling and crime: an empirical evaluation. In W. R. Gove (Ed.), The labeling of deviance: evaluating a perspective (pp. 241–263). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Uggen, C., Wakefield, S., & Western, B. (2005). Work and family perspectives on reentry. In J. Travis & C. Visher (Eds.), Prisoner reentry and crime in America (pp. 209–243). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Van de Rakt, M., Nieuwbeerta, P., & De Graaf, N. D. (2008). Like father, like son? The relationships between conviction trajectories of father and their sons and their daughters. British Journal of Criminology, 48, 538–556.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Van de Weijer, D., Bijleveld, C. C., & Blokland, A. A. (2014). The intergenerational transmission of violent offending. Journal of Family Violence, 29, 109–118.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ward, J., Krohn, M., & Gibson, C. (2014). The effects of police contact on trajectories of violence: a group-based, propensity score matching analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(3), 440–475. Scholar
  114. 114.
    van de Weijer, S., Augustyn, M. B., & Besemer, S. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of crime. The Routledge international handbook of life-course criminology, 279–297.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    West, D. J., & Farrington, D. P. (1977). The delinquent way of life. London: Heinimann.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Western, B., Kling, J., & Weiman, D. (2001). The labor market consequences of incarceration. Crime & Delinquency, 47(3), 410–427. Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wiley, S., & Esbensen, F. (2016). The effect of police contact: does official intervention result in deviance amplification? Crime & Delinquency, 62(3), 283–307. Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wiley, S. A., Slocum, L. A., & Esbensen, F. A. (2013). The unintended consequences of being stopped or arrested: an exploration of the labeling mechanisms through which police contact leads to subsequent delinquency. Criminology, 51(4), 927–966.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wiley, S. A., Carson, D. C., & Esbensen, F. A. (2017). Arrest and the amplification of deviance: Does gang membership moderate the relationship?. Justice Quarterly, 34(5), 788–817.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wolfe, S., McLean, K., & Pratt, T. (2017). I learned it by watching you: legal socialization and the intergenerational transmission of legitimacy attitudes. British Journal of Criminology, 57(5), 1123–1143. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Criminal Justice, University of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Department of Criminal JusticeTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Sociology and Criminology & LawUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Criminology, Law and SocietyGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

Personalised recommendations