Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 480–489 | Cite as

Feasibility of Two-Dimensional Radiation Dose Distribution Simulation Through Ultrasound Tracking of Respiratory Motion

  • Chia-Chun Kuo
  • Ho-Chiao ChuangEmail author
  • Chan-Yang Kuo
  • Lai-Lei Ting
  • Hsiao-Wei Yu
  • Yu-Peng Wu
  • Hsiao-Yu Hsu
  • Der-Chi Tien
  • Shiu-Chen Jeng
  • Jeng-Fong Chiou
Original Article


This study applied an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) for tracking respiration and developed a 2D dose distribution simulation program (DDSP) for simulating a dose distribution map. We evaluated the feasibility of a 2D respiratory motion simulation system combined with the UITA during radiotherapy for tracking respiration. The recorded respiration signals were input to the DDSP to generate a simulated dose distribution map and verify the effectiveness of the Gafchromic Film EBT3 (EBT3 film) as a measured dose distribution map (MDDM), to validate the DDSP. A radiation dose was delivered to EBT3 film and the film response was quantified using the isodose area rate (IAR), average dose rate within the field (ADFR), conformity index rate (CIR), and gamma passing rate. The tracking performance was evaluated by calculating the root mean squared error (RMSE). The calculated RMSEs were 1.67–5.34 and 0.42–2.53 mm in superior–inferior and right–left directions, respectively. The ADFR was 0.93–1.21 and the IARs at 20, 50, 70, and 80% were 0.87–1.29, 0.84–1.16, 0.79–1.61, and 0.48–6.64, respectively. The CIRs at 50, 70, and 80% were 0.87–1.23, 0.84–1.29, and 0.81–4.40, respectively. The human respiration patterns exhibited a 3%/3 mm gamma passing rate of 76.56–96.94%. This study successfully used an ultrasound imaging system to capture human respiration signals and transmit them to the DDSP for simulating radiation dose distributions, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the system.


Ultrasound imaging Respiration compensating system Dose distribution simulation Real-time tracking Gafchromic EBT3 film 



This research was supported by the Taipei Medical University Hospital under Contract USTP-NTUT-TMU-104-03. The authors express their appreciation to the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, for providing the financial support and facilities for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to be disclosed.


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Copyright information

© Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chia-Chun Kuo
    • 2
  • Ho-Chiao Chuang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chan-Yang Kuo
    • 1
    • 6
  • Lai-Lei Ting
    • 2
  • Hsiao-Wei Yu
    • 2
  • Yu-Peng Wu
    • 1
  • Hsiao-Yu Hsu
    • 1
  • Der-Chi Tien
    • 1
  • Shiu-Chen Jeng
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jeng-Fong Chiou
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Taipei University of TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyTaipei Medical University HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.School of Dentistry, College of Oral MedicineTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, College of MedicineTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Cancer CenterTaipei Medical University HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  6. 6.Department of AnesthesiologyNational Defense Medical Center and Tri-Service General HospitalTaipeiTaiwan

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