Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 70–75 | Cite as

Automatic Diabetes Detection from Histological Images of Rats Phrenic Nerve Using Two-Dimensional Sample Entropy

  • Antonio Carlos da Silva Senra FilhoEmail author
  • Juliano Jinzenji Duque
  • Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva
  • Joaquim Cesar Felipe
  • Valéria Paula Sassoli Fazan
  • Luiz Otávio Murta Junior
Original Article


In microscopy, morphological characteristic of the axon are the most common features assessed in histological images of nerves. Although morphometric indexes are widely used to describe histological data, the calculation of those indexes is a highly time-consuming task that demands great manual effort from the specialist. Recently, two-dimensional sample entropy (SampEn2D) was proposed to quantify the degree of irregularity present in an image, based on the spatial patterns of pixels. Here, we propose the use of SampEn2D as a suitable metric for classifying diabetic status of rats from histological images of the phrenic nerve. Microscopy images of three different Wistar rats groups (untreated diabetic (N = 24), insulin-treated diabetic (N = 9), and non-diabetic control (N = 11)) were analysed. The results show that for the optimal SampEn2D parameters (m = 1, r = 0.1), control rats have significantly (p < 0.01) lower entropy (3.76 ± 0.26) as compared to both insulin-treated (5.09 ± 0.20) and untreated (5.30 ± 0.13) diabetic animals. Performance of SampEn2D for image classification between untreated and control groups was assessed by ROC analysis and area under the ROC curves (AUROC = 0.96). SampEn2D reaches a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 82% when a threshold of SampEn2D = 4.73 is taken to separate the two assessed groups. In conclusion, SampEn2D method arises as a useful tool in the screening of diabetic rats. The method may be useful to pre-select animals for further morphometric evaluation, reducing the burden of manual processing.


Sample entropy Regularity Image processing Diabetes Phrenic nerve Morphometry 



The authors would like to thanks Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the financial support.


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Copyright information

© Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Carlos da Silva Senra Filho
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juliano Jinzenji Duque
    • 1
  • Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva
    • 2
    • 3
  • Joaquim Cesar Felipe
    • 1
  • Valéria Paula Sassoli Fazan
    • 4
  • Luiz Otávio Murta Junior
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computing and Mathematics, Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters of Ribeirao PretoUniversity of Sao PauloRibeirao PretoBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao PretoUniversity of Sao PauloRibeirao PretoBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science, Institute of Mathematics and Computer ScienceUniversity of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Surgery and Anatomy, School of Medicine of Ribeirao PretoUniversity of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil

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