Design and Fabrication of a 3D Scaffold for the Aortic Root Tissue Engineering Application
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In this study, a polymeric human aortic root made of hydrogel-based biomaterials is proposed. To design the geometry of the root, an advanced surfacing technique based on the de Casteljau method (for developing Bezier surfaces) was applied. The three-dimensional geometry was developed using two-dimensional images obtained by the radial dissection of an adult human aortic root. The biomaterial used for the aortic valve was a biocompatible hydrogel made of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reinforced by bacterial cellulose (BC) natural nanofibers in a combination of 15% PVA and 0.5% BC, by weight fraction. The biomaterial used for the root was only 10% PVA. The tensile properties of the synthesized PVA-BC that were measured are close to those of the human aortic valve leaflet tissue in the two principle directions, radial and circumferential. Also, we obtained a close match of the stress–strain curves for the aorta in the circumferential and axial directions and anisotropic 10% PVA with 75% initial strain after cycle 3. A cavity mold was designed and manufactured and the proposed polymeric valve was then fabricated. An extensive finite element analysis was performed in order to optimize the final product. The proposed model can be further considered for clinical applications or may be used for tissue engineering applications.
KeywordsFinite element method Aortic valve Hydrogel Human aortic root Continuum model Computational mechanics Numerical modeling
The authors acknowledge the University of British Columbia and NSERC (Discovery Grant) for financial support.
The funding were provided by University of British Columbia and NSERC Discovery Program.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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