Advertisement

ChemTexts

, 4:14 | Cite as

Nuclear transformations and radioactive emissions: Part II—secondary transitions and post-effects

  • Frank Rösch
Lecture Text

Abstract

The present chapter follows part I of a series of two articles, which characterized unstable nuclei and described primary transformation pathways to stabilize a nucleus in terms of its nucleon compositions. Part II focuses on follow-up phenomena of those “primary” transformations. It first illustrates the class of secondary transitions, which all originate from an excited nuclear level of a nucleus, formed in a primary transformation. Next it discusses post-effects, which appear when nuclear transformations and transitions affect the atom as a whole, i.e. also its electron shell. Third, there are several post-effect phenomena when particular or electromagnetic radiation emitted in the course of the above-mentioned processes interact with surrounding condensed matter. Consequently, there are many specific emissions which accompany those secondary and post-effect processes, and which are not directly related to the primary transformations. A prominent example is γ-emissions as emitted in one of the three secondary transition pathways. These γ-rays, however, represent just one of the many emission which altogether are the essence of radioactivity.

Keywords

Secondary transitions Inner conversion Pair formation Post-effects Annihilation γ-emission X-rays Auger electrons 

References

  1. 1.
    Vértes A, Nagy S, Klencsár Z, Lovas RG, Rösch F (eds) (2011) Handbook of nuclear chemistry, 6 volumes, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rösch F (2014) Nuclear- and radiochemistry. Volume I: introduction. Walter de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rösch F (ed) (2016) Nuclear- and radiochemistry. Volume II: modern applications. Walter de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rösch F. Herzog H, Qaim SM (2017) The beginning and development of the theranostic approach in nuclear medicine, as exemplified by the radionuclide pair 86Y and 90Y. Pharmaceuticals.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ph10020056 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krenning EP, Kooij PP, Bakker WH, Breeman WAP, Postema PTE, Kwekkeboom DJ, Oei HY, De Jong M, Visser TJ, Reijs AEM, Lamberts SWJ (1994) Radiotherapy with a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue, [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]-octreotide: a case history. Ann N Y Acad Sci 733:496–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Nuclear ChemistryJohannes Gutenberg-University MainzMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations