, 4:6 | Cite as

Acid–base equilibria of amino acids: microscopic and macroscopic acidity constants

  • Fritz ScholzEmail author
  • Heike Kahlert
Lecture Text


A short introduction to the notation of microscopic and macroscopic acidity constants of amino acids is given. The historical pathways are discussed, which led to the contemporary understanding of the acid base reactions of amino acids and their zwitterionic nature in solutions at the isoelectric point. This text is for undergraduate studies of analytical chemistry and biochemistry.


Amino acids Microscopic acidity constants Macroscopic acidity constants Zwitterion Georg Bredig Friedrich Wilhelm Küster Elliot Quincy Adams Niels Janniksen Bjerrum Ruth Erica Benesch Reinhold Benesch John Tilestone Edsall 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of BiochemistryUniversity of GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany

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