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Applied Catalysis in the Automotive Industry: Development of a Commercial Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Simulation Model Balanced for the Requirements of an Original Engine Manufacturer. Part 1, NOx Chemistry

  • Fredrik BlomgrenEmail author
  • Soran Shwan
  • Lars Carlhammar
  • Miroslawa Milh
Article
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Driven by a need for simulations in exhaust aftertreatment system R&D, a simulation model of a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst has been developed. Considering near future legislation demands in which cold starts will be of high importance, focus has been to develop a model which can be used to simulate as many engine operating points as possible and not just those at normal driving conditions. In order to emulate as many operating points as possible, the model has been calibrated and validated against synthetic gas bench tests in which inlet composition, temperature, and space velocity were varied. The model, which is of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type, incorporates three catalytic sites: one representing the precious metal, one NO/NO2 storage site, and one site with a high affinity to oxidation by NO2 with a concomitant NO production. The oxidation of the latter site by NO2 and simultaneous production of NO was found in the experimental data and contradicts the equilibrium thermodynamics of the NO + ½O2 ⇌ NO2 reaction, commonly used to describe the activity of diesel oxidation catalysts. The attitude in most of industry towards simulation models is that they represent a means to an ultimate objective, which is to understand the complete exhaust aftertreatment system. In this paper we present and discuss the performance of our diesel oxidation catalyst simulation model, developed solely using synthetic gas bench data, with this objective in mind.

Keywords

Applied catalysis DOC Modeling NO oxidation Space velocity 

Nomenclature

Aj

Pre-exponential factor for reaction j (depends on the rate expression)

aj

active site density of reaction j, m2

\( \overrightarrow{{\mathrm{c}}_{\mathrm{s}}},{\mathrm{c}}_{\mathrm{s},\mathrm{i}} \)

vector and component, respectively, of concentration at catalyst surface, mol/m3

Cpg

heat capacity of gas, J/(kg K)

Dh

hydraulic diameter of channel, m

Di, m

diffusion coefficient of species i in the mixture, m2/s

Ea, j

Activation energy for reaction j, J/mol

f

friction factor

fsb

solid friction of substrate

fwc

solid friction of washcoat

h

heat transfer coefficient, J/(m2 s K)

hx

external heat transfer coefficient, J/(m2 s K)

Keq

equilibrium constant for ammonia inhibition

km, i

mass transfer coefficient for trace species i, kg/(m2 s)

Mi

molecular weight of species i, kg/mol

Nu

Nusselt number for heat transfer

p

pressure, Pa

Ri

species mass rate, kg/(m3 s)

rj

reaction rate for reaction j, mol/(mol-site s)

sij

stoichiometric coefficient of species i for reaction j

S

surface area per reactor volume, m−1

Sx

external surface area per reactor volume, m−1

Sh

Sherwood number

t

time, s

Tg

temperature of bulk gas in reactor channels, K

Ts

temperature of gas at catalyst surface; solid phase temperature, K

Tx

external temperature, K

v

interstitial velocity, m/s

z

axial position, m

δ

washcoat thickness, m

Hj

enthalpy of reaction j (negative for exothermic reactions), J/m

αk, j

coverage dependence for component k in reaction j

ε

void fraction of reactor

\( \overrightarrow{\uptheta_{\mathrm{s}}},{\uptheta}_{\mathrm{k}} \)

vector and component, respectively, of surface coverage of component k

λg

thermal conductivity of bulk gas, J/(m s K)

λsb

thermal conductivity of substrate, J/(m s K)

ρg

density of bulk gas in reactor channels, kg/m3

ρs

density of gas at catalyst surface, kg/m3

σkj

stoichiometric coefficient for coverage i in reaction j

ψs

effective heat capacity of reactor, J/(m3 K)

ωg, i

mass fraction in the bulk gas of component i

ωs, i

mass fraction in the washcoat of component i

Abbreviations

EATS

Engine aftertreatment system

DOC

diesel oxidation catalyst

HC

hydro carbon (non-combusted fuel)

SCR

selective catalytic reduction

SGB

synthetic gas bench

TPD

temperature programmed desorption

cpsi

cells per square inch

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

40825_2019_109_MOESM1_ESM.docx (289 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 288 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Product Advanced Engineering at Volvo Group Trucks Technology (GTT)GothenburgSweden

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