Improving Methodology of Particulate Measurement in Periodic Technical Inspection with High-Sensitivity Techniques: Laser Light Scattering Photometry and Particle Number Method

  • Hiroyuki YamadaEmail author


First, the validity of the current test procedure for particle measurement adopted in a periodic technical inspection (PTI) was evaluated by comparing test results obtained with the PTI and a type approval test (TAT) procedure using a Euro V level diesel truck with an intentionally damaged diesel particulate filter (DPF). PM and particle number (PN) with the TAT increased with increasing DPF damage ratio, and the PTI results well reproduced those in the TAT. However, the regulation limit of the PTI was so loose that even a 100% damaged DPF resulted in emission well below the PTI limit, although 0.5% and 5% damage ratios resulted in values exceeding the PN and PM limits in TAT, respectively. Then, we evaluated three different techniques for particle detection with the PTI procedure, such as an opacity meter, which is currently used in PTI, laser light scattering photometry (LLSP), and the PN method. For the detecting DPF failure, opacity meters did not have sufficient sensitivity. On the other hand, the LLSP was sensitive enough for detecting DPF failure, but the results varied among LLSP devices. This variation was due to the test procedure of PTI, which is strongly transient (no load racing). The LLSP and PN measurement devices were sensitive enough to detect DPF failure at idle, which was quite steady, and the variation observed in the PTI procedure did not occur. PN counting of particles over 15 nm was more sensitive than LLSP and was sensitive enough to detect DPF failure, which did not result in the PM limit in TAT being exceeded.


Opacity meter LLSP Particle number Periodic technical inspection Type approval test 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


  1. 1.
    Regional office for Europe, World Health Organization: Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution—REVIHAAP Project Technical Report (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dockery, D.W., Pope, C.A., Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware, J.H., Fay, M.E., Ferris Jr., B.G., Speizer, F.E.: An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N. Engl. J. Med. 329(24), 1753–17593 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kittelson, D.B.: Engine and nanoparticles: a review. J. Aerosol Sci. 29(5-6), 575–588 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oberdörster, G., Oberdörster, E., Oberdörster, J.: Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environ. Health Perspect. 113(7), 823–839 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fujitani, Y., Kumar, P., Tamura, K., Fushimi, A., Hasegawa, S., Takahashi, K., Tanabe, K., Kobayashi, S., Hirano, S.: Seasonal differences of the atmospheric particle size distribution in a metropolitan area in Japan. Sci. Total Environ. 437, 339–347 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bakand, D., Hayes, A., Dechsakultorn, F.: Nanoparticles: a review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure. Inhal. Toxicol. 24(2), 125–135 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization: IARC: Diesel Engine Exhaust Carcinogenic. Press release N°213 (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    UNECE: Regulations No. 83 (Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles with Regard to the Emission of Pollutants According to Engine Fuel Requirements). (2008) (Checked on 27th July 2016)
  9. 9.
    UNECE: Regulations No. 49 (Uniform provisions concerning the measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression-ignition engines and positive ignition engines for use in vehicles). (2011) (Checked on 27th July 2016)
  10. 10.
    DIRECTIVE 2014/45/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF COUNCIL of 3 April 2014, on periodic roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers and repealing directive 2009/40/EC, (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shinozaki, O., Shinoyama, E., Saito, K.: Trapping performance of diesel particulate filters. SAE Technical paper 900107 (1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kitagawa, J., Asami, S., Uehara, K., Hijikata, T.: Improvement of pore size distribution of wall flow type diesel particulate filter. SAE Technical Paper 920144 (1992)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yamada, H.: PN emissions from heavy-duty diesel engine with periodic regenerating DPF. SAE Int. J. Engines. 6(2), 1178–1189 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    CITA: TEDDIE A new roadworthiness emission test for diesel vehicles involving NO, NO2 and PM measurements Final Report (2011). (Checked on 19th February 2018)
  15. 15.
    Giechaskiel, B., Mamakos, A., Andersson, J., Dilara, P., Martini, G., Schindler, W., Bergmann, A.: Measurement of automotive nonvolatile particle number emissions within the European legislative framework: a review. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 719–749 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yamada, H., Goto, Y.: Optimization of PM measurements with a number counting method. SAE Int. J. Engines. 1, 1179–1185 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yamada, H., Inomata, S., Tanimoto, H.: Mechanisms of increased particle and VOC emissions during DPF active regeneration and practical emissions considering the regeneration. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(5), 2914–2923 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ministry of the Environment, Japan: Transformation algorithm into the Japanese new transient engine test cycle. (checked on 19th February, 2018)
  19. 19.
    Minagawa, T., Nagaoka, D., Yuza, H., Nakada, T., Kamimoto, T.: Development of a high sensitivity and high response portable smoke meter. SAE Technical Paper, 2014-01-1480 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yamada, H., Funato, K., Sakurai, H.: Application of the PMP methodology to the measurement of sub-23 nm solid particles: calibration procedures, experimental uncertainties, and data correction methods. J. Aerosol Sci. 88, 58–71 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yamada, H., Inomata, S., Tanimoto, H.: Particle and VOC emissions from stoichiometric gasoline direct injection vehicles and correlation between particle number and mass emissions. Emission Control Science and Technology. 3(2), 135–141 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tokyo Denki UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations