Advertisement

International Journal of Fuzzy Systems

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 782–792 | Cite as

Improvement in Two Adjacent Microgrids Frequency Using the AC-to-AC Converter Based on Sugeno Fuzzy Control Scheme

  • Behrouz Alefy
  • Heydar Ali ShayanfarEmail author
  • Soudabeh Soleymani
  • Faramarz Faghihi
Article
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

Microgrid and multi-microgrid are solution for integrating DGs into a system and are components of future power systems. Exploitation and frequency control in islanding mode is of special importance due to the lack of sufficient spinning reserve. Almost, DGs are connected to the microgrid through inverters and frequency deviation from an allowed threshold makes their removal from the main grid which is not acceptable for consumers and producers of the electrical power. One way for frequency control and optimized exploitation of the entire system is to connect the adjacent microgrids. Indeed, the microgrids cooperate together through exchanging their power surplus and power shortage. In this paper, a new hybrid control method based on Sugeno- and Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system to control an AC-to-AC converter connector of two adjacent microgrids has been proposed. An analytical method for controlling the converter was developed using the Sugeno. The proposed method is simple and practical and can be easily implemented. Moreover, to eliminate the steady-state error and to modify the performance of the control system, it is proposed to use a PI fuzzy controller in its outer loop. Simulation results show that the AC-to-AC converter with the proposed controlling strategy has prevented the intensive frequency deviations and has improved the frequency control in both microgrids.

Keywords

AC-to-AC converter Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system PI fuzzy controller Frequency control Microgrid Renewable energy 

List of Symbols

Abbreviations

MG

Microgrid

DG

Distributed generation

FACTS

Flexible alternating current transmission system

HVDC

High-voltage direct current

SMES

Superconducting magnetic energy storage

PV

Photovoltaic

MT

Microturbine

WT

Wind turbine

FC

Fuel cell

Indices

k

Number of microgrid (1 or 2)

Variables

\(V_{{d_{k} }}\)

The voltage of converter bus in “d” axis

\(V_{{q_{k} }}\)

The voltage of converter bus in “q” axis

\(E_{{d_{k} }}\)

The voltage of MG bus in “d” axis

\(E_{{q_{k} }}\)

The voltage of MG bus in “q” axis

\(R_{k}\)

Resistance of line

\(i_{dk}\)

Currents contributed of “d” axis in line

\(i_{qk}\)

Currents contributed of “q” axis in line

\(L_{k}\)

Inductance of line

\(\omega\)

Angular velocity

\(S\)

Complex variable

\(K_{{dp_{k} }}\)

Constant

\(K_{{qp_{k} }}\)

Constant

\(P_{k}\)

Active power

\(Q_{k}\)

Reactive power

References

  1. 1.
    Kewat, S., Singh, B., Hussain, I.: Power management in PV-battery-hydro based standalone microgrid. IET Renew. Power Gener. 12(4), 391–398 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2017.0566 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moradi, M.H., Eskandari, M., Hosseinian, S.M.: Cooperative control strategy of energy storage systems and micro sources for stabilizing microgrids in different operation modes. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 78, 390–400 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2015.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xu, Z., Yang, P., Zhang, Y., Zeng, Z., Zheng, C., Peng, J.: Control devices development of multi-microgrids based on hierarchical structure. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 10(16), 4249–4256 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2016.0796 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kargarian, A., Rahmani, M.: Multi-microgrid energy system operation incorporating distribution-interline power flow controller. Electr. Power Syst. Res. 129, 208–216 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2015.08.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vasiljevska, J., Pecas Lopez, J.A., Matos, M.A.: Evaluating the impact of the multi-microgrid concept using multicriteria decision aid. Electr. Power Syst. Res. 91, 44–51 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2012.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khodaei, A.: Provisional microgrid planning. IEEE Transection Power Syst. 8(3), 1096–1104 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2015.2469719 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Majzoobi, A., Khodaei, A.: Application of microgrid in supporting distribution grid flexibility. IEEE Transection Power Syst. 32(5), 3660–3669 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2016.2635024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sur Tam, K., Kumar, P.: Application of superconductive magnetic energy storage in an asynchronous link between power system. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 5(3), 436–444 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chaine, S., Tiipathy, M.: Design of an optimal SMES for automatic generation control of two-area thermal power system using Cuckoo search algorithm. J. Electr. Syst. Inf. Technol. 2(1), 1–13 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesit.2015.03.001 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kamel, R.M., Chaouachi, A., Nagasaka, K.: Analysis of transient dynamic response of two nearby micro-grids under three different control strategies. Low Carbon Economy 1, 39–53 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Papathanassious S, Hatziargyrion N, Strunz K. A.: benchmark low voltage microgrid network. In: CIGRE Symp. On Power System with Dispersed Generation, pp. 1–8 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lidula, N.W.A., Rajapakse, A.D.: Microgrids research: a review of experimental microgrids and test systems. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 186–202 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zamora, R., Srivastava, A.K.: Controls for microgrids with storage: review, challenges, and research needs. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14, 2009–2018 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.03.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhu, Y., Tomsovic, K.: Development of models for analyzing the load-following performance of micro turbines and fuel cells. Electr. Power Syst. Res. 62, 1–11 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7796(02)00033-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mohato, T., Mukherjee, V.: a novel scaling factor based fuzzy logic controller for frequency control of an isolate hybrid power system. Energy 130, 339–350 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.04.155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nattapol S.W, Issarachai N.: Sugeno fuzzy logic control-based smart pv generators for frequency control in loop interconnected power systems. In: International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON).  https://doi.org/10.1109/ieecon.2014.6925884 (2014)
  17. 17.
    Parise G, Martirano L, Kermani M, Kermani M.: Designing a power control strategy in a microgrid using PID/fuzzy controller based on battery energy storage. In: Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2017 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC/I&CPS Europe).  https://doi.org/10.1109/eeeic.2017.7977856 (2017)
  18. 18.
    Chauhan R.k, Rajpurohit B.S, Hebner R.E, Singh S.N, Longatt, F.M.G.: Design and Analysis of PID and Fuzzy-PID Controller for Voltage Control of DC Microgrid. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies—Asia (ISGT ASIA), 2015 IEEE.  https://doi.org/10.1109/isgt-asia.2015.7387019 (2015)
  19. 19.
    Zhao, Z.Y., Tomizoka, M., Isaka, S.: Fuzzy gain scheduling of PID controllers. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 23(5), 1392–1398 (1993).  https://doi.org/10.1109/21.260670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Taiwan Fuzzy Systems Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behrouz Alefy
    • 1
  • Heydar Ali Shayanfar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Soudabeh Soleymani
    • 1
  • Faramarz Faghihi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Electrical and Computer EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations