A study of the morphometric analysis and cycle of erosion in Waingangā Basin, India

  • Nanabhau S. Kudnar
  • M. RajasekharEmail author
Original Article


The stages of landscape brought by Wainganga river cycle of erosion are precisely characterized and determined by progressive returns of maximum relief ratio (above 70%), maximum amount of slope (40–100%), high dissection index (above 30%) high hypsometric integral (above 60%), high percentage of unconsumed upland (above 30%), and low circularity index. A total number of streams are 9472 in which 6502 are first-order, 2190 are second-order, 605 are third-order, 153 are fourth-order, 17 are fifth-order, and 4 are sixth-order streams. Bifurcation values range from 2.97 to 9.00 and the average bifurcation value is 3.97. The elongation ratios are 0.12. The values reveal that the basin is strongly elongated and it is composed of highly permeable homogenous geologic materials. The drainage density of the river basin is 0.66. With the advancement of the cyclic landscape, the trend of hypsometric integrals, relief ratio, amount of slope, dissection index, and percentage of unconsumed upland trends to decrease to a minimum, while circularity index increases. The penultimate stage of the landscape finally achieves maximum circularity with minimum returns of other variables progressively. The study recommends that the river basin needs a hydrogeological and geophysical study in the future for proper water management and choice of artificial recharge structures for recharge of groundwater in the area under consideration.


Wainganga river River morphometry River cycle 



  1. Ali K, Bajracharya RM, Sitaula BK, Raut N, Koirala HL (2017) Morphometric analysis of Gilgit river basin in mountainous region of Gilgit-Baltistan Province, Northern Pakistan. J Geosci Environ Prot 5:70–88Google Scholar
  2. Biswas S, Sudhakar S, Desai VR (1999) Prioritization of subwatersheds based on morphometric analysis of drainage basin—a remote sensing and GIS approach. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 27:155–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chow Ven T (ed) (1964) Handbook of applied hydrology. McGraw Hill Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Das AK, Mukherjee S (2005) Drainage morphometry using satellite data and GIS in Raigad district Maharashtra. J Geol Soc India 65:577–586Google Scholar
  5. Dodov B, Foufoula, Georgiou E (2006) Floodplain morphometry extraction from a high resolution digital elevation model: a simple algorithm for regional analysis studies. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett 3:410–413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Durbuda DG, Purandara BK, Sharma A (2001) Estimation surface run-off potential of a watershed in semi-arid environment - a case study. J Ind Soc Remote Sens 29(1&2):47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Engelhardt BM, Weisberg PJ, Chambers JC (2012) Influences of watershed geomorphology on extent and composition of riparian vegetation. J Veg Sci 23(1):127–139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Feizizadeh B, Blaschke T (2014) An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis approach for GIS-based multicriteria landslide susceptibility mapping. Int J Geog Inf Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feizizadeh B, Roodposhti MS, Jankowski P, Blaschke T (2014) A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping. Comput Geosci 73:208–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Forzieri G, Gardenti M, Caparrini F, Hashim M (2008) A methodology for the pre-selection of suitable sites for surface and underground small dams in arid areas: a case study in the region of Kidal, Mali. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 33:74–85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gaikwad RD, Bhagat VS (2017) Multi-criteria watershed prioritization of Kas Basin in Maharashtra (India): AHP and influence approaches. Hydrosp Anal 1(1):41–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gaikwad R, Bhagat V (2018) Multi-criteria prioritization for sub-watersheds in medium river basin using AHP and influence approaches. Hydrosp Anal Gatha Cognit. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gashaw T, Tulu T, Argawal M (2017) Erosion risk assessment for prioritization of conservation measures in Geleda watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Environ Syst Res 6(1):1–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hadley RF, Schumm SA (1961) Sediment sources and drainage basin characteristics in upper Cheyenne River basin. US Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1531, 198Google Scholar
  15. Horton RE (1932) Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys U 14:350–361. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Horton RE (1945) Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins; hydro-physical approach to quantitative morphology. Bull Geol Soc Am 56:275–370.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Howard A (1990) Role of hypsometry and planform in basin hydrologic response. Hydrol Process 4:373–385. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kale Vishwas S (1990) Morphological and hydrological characteristics of some allochthonous river channels, Western Deccan trap upland region, India. Geomorphology 3(1):31–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kale Vishwas S (2002) Fluvial geomorphology of Indian rivers—an overview progress. Phys Geogr 26(3):400–433. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaliraj S, Chandrasekar N, Magesh NS (2015) Morphometric analysis of the River Thamirabarani sub-basin in Kanyakumari District, South west coast of Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS. Environ Earth SciGoogle Scholar
  21. Kudnar NS (2015a) Linear aspects of the Wainganga river basin morphometry using geographical information system. Monthly Multidiscip Online Res J Rev Res 1–9Google Scholar
  22. Kudnar NS (2015b) Morphometric analysis of the Wainganga river basin using traditional & GIS techniques, Ph.D. Thesis R.T.M. University, Nagpur, pp 40–90Google Scholar
  23. Kudnar NS (2018) Water pollution a major issue in urban areas: a case study of the Wainganga river basin. Vidyawarta Int Multidiscipl Res J, pp 78–84Google Scholar
  24. Kumar A (1999) Sustainable utilization of water resources in watershed perspective Acase study in Alaunja watershed, Hazaribagh. Bihar J Indian Society Remote Sensing 27(1):13–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumar A, Jayappa K, Deepika B (2011) Prioritization of sub-basins based on geomorphology and morphometric analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Geocarto Int 26:569–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Magesh N, Jitheshlal K, Chandrasekar N, Jini K (2013) Geographical information system based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India. Appl Water Sci 3:467–477. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mark DM (1983) Relation between field-surveyed channel network and map-based geomorphometric measures, Inez Kentucky. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 73(3):358–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mesa LM (2006) Morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin (Tucumán, Argentina). Environ Geol 50:1235–1242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller VC (1953) A quantitative geomorphologic study of drainage basin characteristics in the Clinch Mountain Area, Virginia and Tennessee. Project NR 389042, Tech Rept, Columbia University, Department of Geology, ONR Geography Branch, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Moore I, Grayson RB, Ladson AR (1991) Digital terrain modelling: a review of hydrological, geomorphological, and biological applications. Hydrol Process 5:3–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mueller JE (1968) An introduction to the hydraulic and topographic sinuosity indexes. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 58:371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nag SK, Chakraborty S (2003) Influence of rock types and structures in the development of drainage network in hard rock area. Indian Soc Remote Sens 31(1):25–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oguchi T (1997) Drainage density and relative relief in humid steep mountains with frequent slope failure. Earth Surf Proc Land J Br Geomorphol Group 22(2):107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Othman A, Gloaguen R (2014) Improving lithological mapping by SVM classification of spectral and morphological features: the discovery of a new chromite body in the Mawat Ophiolite Complex (Kurdistan, NE Iraq). Remote Sens 6:6867–6896. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ozdemir H, Bird D (2009) Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods. Environ Geol 56(7):1405–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Panda B, Venkatesh M, Bijendrakumar Anshumali (2019) A GIS-based approach in drainage and morphometric analysis of ken river basin and sub-basins, Central India. J Geol Soc India 93:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Parveen R, Kumar U, Kumar Singh V (2012) Geomorphometric characterization of upper south Koel basin, Jharkhand: a remote sensing & GIS approach. J Water Resour ProtGoogle Scholar
  38. Ratnam K, Srivastava Y, Rao V, Amminedu E, Murthy K (2005) Check dam positioning by prioritization of micro-watersheds using SYI model and morphometric analysis remote sensing and GIS perspective. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 33:25–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ray R, Sheth HC, Mallik J (2006) Structure and emplacement of the Nandurbar- Dhule mafic dyke swarm, Deccan Traps, and the tectonomagmatic evolution of flood basalts. Bull Volcanol 69:537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sahu N, Obi Reddy GP, Nirmal K, Nagaraju MSS, Srivastava R and Singh SK (2016) Morphometric analysis in basaltic Terrain of Central India using GIS techniques: a case study. Appl Water SciGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmidt J, Almond PC, Basher L (2005) Modeling loess landscape for the south Island, New Zealand, based on expert knowledge, New Zealand. J Geology Geophys 48:133–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schumm SA (1956) Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597–646.;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schumm SA (1963) Sinuosity of alluvial rivers in the great plains. Bull Geol Soc Am 74:1089–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Silva R (2007) Evaluation of soil loss in guaraíra basin by GIS and remote sensing based model. J Urban Environ Eng 1(2):44–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh KN (1980) Quantitative analysis of landforms and settlement distribution in southern uplands of eastern Uttar Pradesh (India). VimalPrakashan, Varanasi, pp 23–73Google Scholar
  46. Singh S, Kanhaiya S (2015) Morphometry of the Barakar River Basin, India: a remote sensing and GIS approach. Int J Curr Res 7(7):17948–17955Google Scholar
  47. Singh P, Thakur J, Singh UC (2013) Morphometric analysis of Morar river basin, Madhya Pradesh, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Environ Earth Science 68:1967–1977. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Slaucitajs L (1936) Bagriff der Reliefentwicklung and Berechung der Whren Areals eincr topographischen glacke. Retern Litt 83:111–112Google Scholar
  49. Smith KG (1950) Standards for grading texture of erosional topography. Am J Sci 248:655–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith B, Sandwell D (2003) Accuracy and resolution of shuttle radar topography mission data. Geophys Res Lett 30(9):20–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sreedevi PD, Owais S, Khan HH, Ahmed S (2009) Morphometric analysis of a watershed of South India using SRTM data and GIS. J Geol Soc India 73(4):543–552. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Srinivasa VS, Govindainah S, Home Gowda H (2004) Morphometric analysis of sub-watersheds in the Pavagada area of Tumkur district South India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 32(4):351–362. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Srivastava VK (1997) Study of drainage pattern of Jharia Coalfield (Bihar), India, through remote sensing technology. J. Indian Soc. Remote Sensing 25(1):41–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Strahler AN (1952) Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis of erosional topography. Geol Soc Am Bull 63(1):1117–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Strahler AN (1953) Revisions of Horton’s quantitative factors in erosional terrain. Trans Am Geophys Union 34:345Google Scholar
  56. Straher AN (1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geometry. Trans Am Geophys Union 38:913–920. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks. In: ByVenTe Chow (ed) Handbook of applied hydrology. McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, pp 62–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Strecker MR, Alonso RN, Bookhagen B (2007) Tectonics and climate of the Southern Central Andes. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 35:747–787. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sujatha ER, Selvakumary R, Rajasimmanz UAB, Victorx RG (2015) Morphometric analysis of sub-Watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM. Geomatics Nat Haz Risk 6:326–341. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Warren R (2010) An experimental test of well-described vegetation patterns across slope aspects using woodland herb transplants and manipulated abiotic drivers. New Phytol 185:1038–1049. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zolekar RB, Bhagat VS (2015) Multi-criteria land suitability analysis for agriculture in hilly zone: Remote sensing and GIS approach. Comput Electron Agric 118:300–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyC. J. Patel College TiroraGondiaIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyYogi Vemana UniversityKadapaIndia

Personalised recommendations