Advertisement

Estimating relative immediacy of water-related challenges in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific Ocean using AHP modeling

  • Faisal AhmedEmail author
  • Vinaytosh Mishra
Original Article

Abstract

We outline nine water-related challenges faced by the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific Ocean and map them with relevant sustainable development goals (SDGs). The challenges thus identified have been modeled using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to find out their priority weights. Based on this weightage, the relative immediacy of each of these water-related challenges have been calculated, and classified as high, medium, and low. The findings reveal that the most immediate challenge in terms of their relative immediacy weightage is the ‘rising sea level’. This is followed by ‘low water quality and its availability’, and ‘spread of water-borne and vector-borne diseases’. Other challenges analyzed in this study pertains to overfishing and exploitation of exclusive economic zones; soil erosion and coastal inundation; increase in incidences of natural disasters; coral reef damage and increased ocean acidification; climate refugee; and changing precipitation pattern. This study would be instrumental for policy makers and inter-governmental organizations in directing the resource allocation for adaptation and mitigation efforts in the small islands.

Keywords

Small islands SIDS Pacific Ocean Water Climate change SDG 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to FORE School of Management for infrastructural support provided to complete this work. This work is a part of the Seed Money Project funded by FORE School of Management, New Delhi, India, granted to the first author of this paper.

References

  1. Aiyar Anklesaria SS (2008) Small states: not handicapped and under-aided, but advantaged and over-aided. Cato J 28(3):449–478Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong HW, Read R (2002) The phantom of liberty?: economic growth and the vulnerability of small states. J Int Dev 14(4):435–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barry G (2014) Terrestrial ecosystem loss and biosphere collapse. Manage Environ Qual Int J 25(5):542–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Betzold C (2015) Adapting to climate change in small island developing states. Clim Change 133(3):481–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Billé R, Kelly R, Biastoch A, Harrould-Kolieb E, Herr D, Joos F, Kroeker K, Laffoley D, Oschlies A, Gattuso JP (2013) Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options. Environ Manage 52(4):761–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolster WJ (2012) The Mortal sea: fishing the Atlantic in the Age of Sail. Belknap Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Briguglio LP (2016) Exposure to external shocks and economic resilience of countries: evidence from global indicators. J Econ Stud 43(6):1057–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown RP, Leeves G (2011) Comparative effects of migrants’ remittances on composition of recipient household income in two small, Island economies. Appl Econ 43(27):3965–3976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burkett M (2015) Lessons from contemporary resettlement in the South Pacific. J Int Affairs 68(2):75–91Google Scholar
  10. Cashman A, Cumberbatch J, Moore W (2012) The effects of climate change on tourism in small states: evidence from Barbados case. Tourism Rev 67(3):17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chasek PS (2005) Margins of power: coalition building and coalition maintenance of the South Pacific Island states and the alliance of small Island states. Rev Eur Commun Int Environ Law 14(2):125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Church JA, White NJ, Aarup T, Wilson WS, Woodworth PL, Domingues CM, Hunter JR, Lambeck K (2008) Understanding global sea levels: past, present and future. Sustain Sci 3(1):9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Craig RK (2016) Dealing with ocean acidification: the problem, the clean water act, and state and regional approaches. Wash J Environ Law Policy 6(2):387–469Google Scholar
  14. d’Aubert A, Nunn PD (2012) Furious winds and parched islands: tropical cyclones (1558–1970) and droughts (1722–1987) in the Pacific, Xlibris CorporationGoogle Scholar
  15. Feeny S, Posso A, Regan-Beasley J (2015) Handle with care: fragile states and the determinants of fragility. Appl Econ 47(11):1073–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ghina F (2003) Sustainable development in small island developing states: the case study of Maldives. Environ Dev Sustain 5(1):139–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grynberg R, Razzaque M (2004) The trade performance of small states. Common wealth Secretariat, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hales S, Weinstein P, Woodward A (1999) Ciguatera (fish poisoning), El Niño, and Pacific sea surface temperatures. Ecosyst Health 5(1):20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harrould-Kolieb E, Herr D (2012) Ocean acidification and climate change: synergies and challenges of addressing both under the UNFCCC. Clim Policy 12(3):378–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hay JE (2013) Small Island developing states: coastal systems, global change and sustainability. Sustain Sci 8:309–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hovgaard G (2016) Master learning: a way to manage tertiary education in small island jurisdictions. High Educ 72(5):637–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnston I (2014) Disaster management and climate change adaptation: a remote island perspective. Disaster Prev Manag 23(2):123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jugurnath B, Emrith A (2018) Impact of foreign direct investment on environment degradation: evidence from SIDS countries. J Dev Areas 52(2):13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar RR, Singh M (2013) Role of health expenditure and ICT in a small island economy: a study of Fiji. Qual Quant 48(4):2295–2311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lashley J (2013) ‘Saving for a rainy day’: coping with extreme weather events in small island developing states. J East Caribb Stud 38(3):29–62Google Scholar
  26. Mace M, Verheyen R (2016) Loss, damage and responsibility after COP21: all options open for the paris agreement. Rev Eur Comp Int Environ Law 25(2):197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mata-Lima H, Alvino-Borba A, Aguiar R, Drumond J (2016) Factors affecting flood disasters in small island developing states and potential adaptation measures: the case of Funchal city. Environ Qual Manage 25(3):37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Niesten E, Heidi G, Fong PS (2012) Incentives for marine conservation: options for small island developing states. Environ Dev Econ 18(4):440–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nurse L, Moore R (2005) Adaptation to global climate change: an urgent requirement for small island developing states. Rev Eur Commun Int Environ Law 14(2):100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Prasannakumar V, Vijith H, Geetha N, Shinyet R (2011) Regional scale erosion assessment of a sub-tropical highland segment in the western ghats of Kerala, South India. Water Resour Manage 25(14):3715–3727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Quirk G (2013) Does Oceana have the institutional capacity to meet marine spatial protection targets under the Convention on Biological Diversity? Austr J Maritime Ocean Affairs 5(3):97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Robinson S (2015) Climate change adaptation trends in small island developing states”. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 22(4):669–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roper T (2005) Small Island States—setting an example on green energy use. Rev Eur Commun Int Environ Law 14(2):108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ruane MCM (2014) The buy local initiative and its effectiveness in a small island economy: evidence from the Pacific Island of Guam. J Econ Econ Educ Res 15(3):169–186Google Scholar
  35. Saaty TL (2012) Decision making for leaders: the analytic hierarchy process for decisions in a complex world, 3rd edn. RWS Publications, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  36. Saleh IM, Haddoud D (2013) A review of climate change and rising sea level impacts on global marine ecosystem. J Econ Dev Manag IT Financ Market 5(1):27–43Google Scholar
  37. Saracoglu BO (2015) An AHP application in the investment selection problem of small hydropower plants in Turkey. Int J Anal Hierarchy Process 7(2):211–239Google Scholar
  38. Siaosi F, Huang H-W, Chuang C-T (2012) Fisheries development strategy for developing Pacific Island countries: case study of Tuvalu. Ocean Coast Manage 66:28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Slade TN (2007) Climate change: the human rights implications for small Island developing states. Environ Policy Law 37(2–3):215–222Google Scholar
  40. Snow MM, Snow RK (2009) Modeling, monitoring, and mitigating sea level rise. Manag Environ Qual Int J 20(4):422–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sovacool BK (2012) Perceptions of climate change risks and resilient island planning in the Maldives. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 17(7):731–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Speelman LH, Nicholls RJ, Dyke J (2017) Contemporary migration intentions in the Maldives: the role of environmental and other factors. Sustain Sci 12(3):433–451.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-016-0410-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Spickett JT, Katscherian D, McIver L (2013) Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan. Glob J Health Sci 5(3):42–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Srinivasan UT, Cheung WW, Watson R, Sumaila UR (2010) Food security implications of global marine catch losses due to overfishing. J Bioecon 12(3):183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Teelucksingh S, Nunes PALD, Perrings C (2013) Biodiversity-based development in Small Island developing states. Environ Dev Econ 18:381–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. UNPS (2018) United nations pacific strategy 2018–2022, a multi-country sustainable development framework in the Pacific Region, United Nations in the PacificGoogle Scholar
  47. Vellinga M, Wood RA (2007) Impacts of thermohaline circulation shutdown in the twenty-first century. Clim Change 91(1–2):43–63Google Scholar
  48. Virto LR (2017) A preliminary assessment of indicators for SDG 14 on “Oceans”. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  49. Waite M (2012) Climate-change mitigation and adaptation in small Island developing states: the case of rainwater harvesting in Jamaica. Sustainabil Sci Pract Policy 8(2):81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wind Y, Saaty TL (1980) Marketing applications of the analytic hierarchy process. Manage Sci 26(7):641–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zahedi F (1986) The analytic hierarchy process—a survey of the method and its applications. Interfaces 16(4):96–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zellentin A (2015) Climate justice, small island developing states & cultural loss. Clim Change 133(3):491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.FORE School of ManagementNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations