Advertisement

Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 1285–1296 | Cite as

Characterization of water quality of Almiros river (Northeastern Crete, Greece): physicochemical parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and anionic detergents

  • Melina Kotti
  • Despoina-Eleni Zacharioudaki
  • Eleni Kokinou
  • George Stavroulakis
Original Article
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

Scope of the present work is (a) to explore the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in the surface water of Almiros River, located in Heraklion, Crete, Greece and (b) to correlate the physicochemical parameters (pH, alkalinity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, chlorides, hardness) of this river using robust statistical methods. Nine water samplings were performed in Almiros River in the time period January–November 2016. Standard methods of analysis were applied to investigate the physicochemical parameters. The pollutants PAHs and SDBS were determined simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detectors. Pyrene is the abundant PAH with concentrations ranging between 0.75 and 4.89 µg/L while SDBS ranges between 3.57 and 124.3 µg/L. Additionally, the correlations between the physicochemical parameters showed that TDS, electrical conductivity, salinity and chlorides reveal a strong correlation in the entire time of water sampling.

Keywords

Anionic detergents Correlation Diode array detection Fluorescence detection HPLC Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Water quality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study has been supported by the Laboratory of Water and Soil Quality Control in terms of Master (MSc) in Geo-environmental Resources and Risks. We gratefully acknowledge Mr. Manolis Svourakis, President of MOBIAK company for his kind supply of the nitrogen.

References

  1. Afrib B, Marsily G, Ganoulis J (2007) Locating the zone of saline intrusion in a coastal karst aquifer using spring flow data. Groundwater 45(1):28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexakis D (2016) Μanagement options of a brackish water spring. Case study: almyros spring (Heraklion, Greece). Austin J Hydrol 3(1):1017Google Scholar
  3. Ana GREE, Sridhar MKC, Emerole GO (2011) Contamination of surface waters by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two Nigerian coastal communities. J Environ Health Res 11(2):77–85Google Scholar
  4. Anastasiadis, Unpublished data, 2000Google Scholar
  5. APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th ed., APHA, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Arimoto M, Tsujizawa H, Yokoyama T (1980) LAS (linear alkyl benzene sulfonate) phosphorus in Katsuura-Moriura Bays. Wakayama-ken Eisei Kenkyusho Nenp 27:39–42 (as cited in Painter and Zabel, 1988) Google Scholar
  7. Boitsidis P, Mitrakas M (1999) Anionic surfactants in surface and potable waters of Greece. Fresenius Environ Bull 8(11):662–667Google Scholar
  8. Breznik M (1978) Mechanism and development of the brackish karstic spring Almyros Herakliou. Annal Geol des Pays Helleniques 29:29–46Google Scholar
  9. Castillo M, Riu J, Ventura F, Boleda R, Scheding R, Schroder HF, Nistor C, Emneus J, Eichhorn P, Knepper ThP, Jonkers CCA, de Voogt P, Gonzalez-Mazo E, Leon VM, Barcelo D (2000) Inter-laboratory comparison of liquid chromatographic techniques and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of surfactants in wastewaters. J Chromatogr A 889:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Celino JJ, Corseuil HX, Fernandes M, Hadlich GM (2012) Persistent toxic substances in surface water of Todos Os Santos Bay, Brazil. Resour Environ 2(4):141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan WH, Lee AWM, Lu J-Z (1998) Optode for the specific determination of anionic surfactants. Anal Chim Acta 361:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. da Costa Lima A, Heleno FF, de Cássia F, Afonso RJ, Coutrim MX (2015) Determination of PAHs in surface waters from the Doce and Piracicaba Rivers in Brazil. J Water Resour Prot 7:422–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dionex Corporation (2009) Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tap water using on-line solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC with UV and fluorescence detections, Application Note 213, LPN 2128 PDF 01/09Google Scholar
  14. EEC Directive (2013) 2013/39/EC Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliment and of the Council, 2013, Official Journal of the European Union, L 226/1Google Scholar
  15. Ghiasvand AR, Taherimaslak Z, Allahyari M (2009) Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and a new adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of sodium dodecyl sulfate in nonaqueous solution after its extraction using toluidine blue. Int J Electrochem Sci 4:320–335Google Scholar
  16. Giannarou C (2009) Hydrological investigation of the brackish karstic spring of Almiros in Heraklion Crete, Diploma thesis, NTUAGoogle Scholar
  17. Habibi MH, Hadjmohammadi MR (2008) Determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Caspian seawater by HPLC following preconcentration with solid phase extraction. Iran J Chem Chem Eng 27(4):91–96Google Scholar
  18. Hanif NM, Adnan SNN, Latif MT, Zakaria Z, Abdullahand MdP, Othman MR (2012) The composition of surfactants in river water and its influence to the amount of surfactants in drinking. Water World Appl Sci J 17(8):970–975Google Scholar
  19. Hon-ami H, Hanya T (1980) Linear river estuary and bay water·gas spectrometry. Water Resour 14:1251–1256Google Scholar
  20. Jing-fu L, Gui-bin J (2001) Determination of anionic surfactants in detergents by microporous membrane liquid] liquid extraction and flow injection spectrophotometry. Microchem J 68:29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kanaki M, Nikolaou A, Makri CA, Lekkas DF (2007) the occurrence of priority PAHs, nonylphenol and octylphenol in inland and coastal waters of Central Greece and the Island of Lesvos. Desalination 210:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kikuchi M, Tokai A, Yoshida Y (1986) Determination of trace levels of linear alkylbenzenesulfonates in the marine environment by high-performance liquid chromatography. Water Resour 20(5):643–650Google Scholar
  23. Kotti M, Kokinou E, Stavroulakis G (2016) Classification of storm water and sea water samples by zero-, first- and second-order derivative UV spectra and pattern recognition methods. Int J Eng Res Appl 6(3):62–67Google Scholar
  24. Lambrakis N, Andreou AS, Polydoropoulos P, Georgopoulos E, Bountis T (2000) Nonlinear forecasting of a brackish karstic spring. Wat Res Res 36(4):875–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lavorante AF, Morales-Rubio A, de la Guardia M, Reis BF (2007) A multicommuted stop-flow system employing LEDs based photometer for the sequential determination of anionic and cationic surfactants in water. Anal Chim Acta 600:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lekkas T, Kolokythas G, Nikolaou A, Kostopoulou M, Kotrikla A, Gatidou G, Thomaidis NS, Golfinopoulos S, Makri C, Babos D, Vagi M, Stasinakis A, Petsas A, Lekkas DF (2004) Evaluation of the pollution of surface waters of Greece from the priority compounds of List II, 76/464/EEC Directive, and other toxic compounds. Environ Int 30:995–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lever Brothers Company, Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  28. Manoli E, Samara C, Konstantinou I, Albanis T (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the bulk precipitation and surface waters of northern Greece. Chemosphere 41:1845–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maramathas A, Maroulis Z, Marinos-Kouris D (2003) Blocking sea intrusion in brackish Karstic Springs, the case of the Almiros Spring at Heraklion Crete, Greece. European Water 1/2:17–23Google Scholar
  30. Mérida-Venezuela V (2002) Surfactants types and uses. Jean-Louis Salager, Laboratory of formulation, interfaces, rheology and processes. Firp booklet#E300-AGoogle Scholar
  31. Okamoto T, Shirane Y (1982) Pollution of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) in river and coastal area in Hiroshima Prefecture. Hiroshima-Ken Kankyo Senta Kenkyu Hokoku 3:60–65 (as cited in Painter and Zabel, 1988) Google Scholar
  32. Okoro D (2008) Source determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of a creek in the Niger Delta region. Afr J Biotech 7(3):282–285Google Scholar
  33. Painter HA, Zabel T (1988) Review of the environmental safety of LAS WRc, Medmenham, UKGoogle Scholar
  34. Perrin C (2011) Program Manager of Watershed Education for Communities and Officials Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Division of Water Quality North Carolina State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  35. Sandoval SP, Pool DL, Schultze LE (1990) Effect of Nonionic Surfactants on Chalcopyrite Leaching Under Dump Chemical Conditions, Report of Investigations 9311, United States Department of the interiorGoogle Scholar
  36. Saraswat R, Kouthanker M, Kurtarkar S, Nigam R, Linshy VN (2011) Effect of salinity induced pH changes on benthic foraminifera: a laboratory culture experiment. Biogeosci Discuss 8:8423–8450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsakiris G, Spiliotis M, Paritsis S, Alexakis D (2009) Assessing the water potential of karstic saline springs by applying a fuzzy approach: the case of Almyros (Heraklion, Crete). Desalination 237:54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vineis P, Chan Q, Khan A (2011) Climate change impacts on water salinity and health. J Epidemiol Global Health 1:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Voutsa D, Manoli E, Samara C, Sofoniou M, Stratis I (1999) A quality study of surface waters of Macedonia, Greece: specification of nitrogen and phosphorus. In: 6th international conference on environmental science and technology, Pythagorion, Samos, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  40. Walli HA (2015) Determination of PAHs in Surface Water of Al-Dalmaj Marsh, Al-Diwaniya Province, Iraq. Journal of Environment Earth Science 5(12):67–72Google Scholar
  41. White Plains (2000) Water quality issues of electricity production: pollution of water bodies. Power Scorecard, Pace University, Pace energy and Climate centerGoogle Scholar
  42. Woodford C (2015) Water pollution: an introduction, UK Rivers NetworkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melina Kotti
    • 1
  • Despoina-Eleni Zacharioudaki
    • 1
  • Eleni Kokinou
    • 1
  • George Stavroulakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Technological Educational Institute of CreteChaniaGreece

Personalised recommendations