Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 1365–1375 | Cite as

Monitoring the spatio-temporal aerosol loading over Nigeria

  • Julius Adekola Akinyoola
  • Emmanuel Olaoluwa EresanyaEmail author
  • O. O. I. Orimoogunje
  • K. Oladosu
Original Article


The moderate resolution imaging spectro-radiometer (MODIS, Terra and Aqua) and ozone monitoring instruments (OMI) were used to investigate the spatio-temporal variations of aerosols over Nigeria. The cloud aerosol lidar and Infared Pathfinder satelite observations (CALIPSO) were used for cloud aerosol classification in order to show aerosol concentration within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). 4 years data were selected so as to be able to observe seasonal variation on the aerosol loading and to identify the year(s) and month(s) that experienced highest aerosol plume. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 2.30 µg/m3 occurred in March, 2012 at the shoreline of South–South, Nigeria while 1.25 µg/m3 was recorded in June, 2011 in Plateau State, North-Central, Nigeria. Dominant aerosols found around the shore line of the country were rich in sulfate as it shows hygroscopic characteristics and exhibited seasonal variation for the 4 years experimented. It was observed that petroleum refinery operations and gas flaring significantly contributes to the major sources of sulfate aerosol which would likely increase aerosol optical depth over the region. Strong outbreak of dust experienced over Nigeria from 500 to 1500 m originated from the continental sources in the Saharan desert, Mediterranean sea and other biomass burning in the Niger Delta.


Aerosol Aerosol optical depth Spatial variation Planetary boundary layer 



We thank National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) of United State of America for providing Giovanni software that was used in this work not only that the site also provide links to remote sensing dataset at different spatial and temporal resolution. We also appreciate the provision of the CALIPSO aerosol products at We are very grateful to individual for their informative comments which have greatly improved the quality of this work.


  1. Adeyewa ZD, Oluleye A (1998) Relationships between aerosol index, ozone, solar Zenith climatologies. Geophys Res Lett 25(3):301–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akinyemi ML, Oladiran EO (2007) Temporal and spatial variability of ozone concentration over four African stations. ANSI J Appl Sci 7(6):913–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alam K, Iqbal MJ, Blaschke T, Qureshi S, Khan G (2010) Monitoring the spatiotemporal variations in aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions over Pakistan using MODIS data. Adv Space Res 46:1162–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arkar S, Chokngamwong R, Cervone G, Singh RP, Kafatos M (2006) Variability of aerosol optical depth and aerosol forcing over India. Adv Space Res 37:2153–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhartia PK, Silberstein D, Monosmith B, Fleig AJ (1984) Stanford profiles of ozone from ground based measurements. In: Proceedings of 4th Ozone sympodium, 3–7 September 1984, Halkidiki, Greece, pp 243–247Google Scholar
  6. Camara M, Jenkins G, Konare A (2010) Impacts of dust on West African Climate during 2005and 2006. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 10(2):3053–3086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Corlett GK, Monks PS (2001) A comparison of total column ozone values derived from the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME), the Tiros operational vertical Sounder (TOVS), and total ozone mapping spectrometre (TOMS). J Atmos Sci 58:1104–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daramola M, Eresanya EO (2017) Land surface temperature analysis over Akure. J Environ Earth Sci 7(5)Google Scholar
  9. Dey S, Tripathi SN, Singh RP, Holben BN (2005) Seasonal variability of aerosol parameters over Kanpur, an urban site in Indo-Gangetic basin. Adv Space Res 36:778–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EI-Askary H, Gautam R, Singh RP, Kafatos M (2006) Dust storms detection over the Indo-Gangetic basin using multi sensor data. Adv Space Res 37:728e733Google Scholar
  11. Eresanya EO, Oluleye A, Daramola MT (2017) The influence of rainfall and temperature on total column ozone over West Africa. Adv Res 10(2):1–11 (Article no. AIR.34312)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fenger J (1999) Urban air quality. AtmosEnviron 33:4877–4900Google Scholar
  13. Fioletov VE, Kerr JB, Hare EW (1999) An assessment of the world ground based total ozone network performance from the comparison with satellite data. J Geophys Res 104(D1):1737–1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forster PM, Freckleton RS, Shine KP (1997) On aspects of the concepts of radiative forcing. Clim Dyn 13:547–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goudie AS, Middleton NJ (2001) Saharan dust storms: nature and consequences. Earth Sci Rev 56(1–4):179–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guiling W, Elfatm ABE (2000) Biosphere atmosphere interactions over West Africa. I: development and validation of a coupled dynamic model. QJR Meteorol Soc 126:1239–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hansen JM, Sato M, Ruedy R (1997) Radiation forcing and climate response. J Geophys Res 102(25):6831–6864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hao X, Qu JJ (2007) Saharan dust storm detection using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer thermal infrared bands. J Appl Remote Sens 1:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hunt WH, Winker DM, Vaughan MA, Powell KA, Lucker PL, Weimer C (2009) CALIPSO lidar description and per- formance assessment. J Atmos Ocean Tech 26:1214–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kambezidis HD, Kaskaoutis DG (2008) Aerosol climatology over four AERONET sites: an overview. Atmos Environ 42:1892–1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krewski D, Burnett RT, Goldberg MS, Hoover K, Siemiatycki J, Jerrett M, Abrahamowicz A, White WH (2000) Reanalysis of the Harvard Six Cities Study and the American Cancer Society Study of Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality: a special report of the institute’s particle epidemiology reanalysis project. Health Effects Institute, Cambridge MA,pp 97Google Scholar
  22. Mcpeters RD, Labow GJ (1996) An assessment of the accuracy of 14.5 years Nimbus 7 TOMS version & one data by comparison with the Dobson network. Geophys Res 23:3695–3698Google Scholar
  23. Miller DJ, Sun K, Zondlo MA, Kanter D, Dubovik O, Welton EJ, Winker DM, Ginoux P (2011) Assessing boreal forest fire smoke aerosol impacts on US air quality: a case study using multiple data sets. J Geophys Res 116:D22209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ogunjobi KO, Kim YJ (2008) Aerosol characteristics and surface radiative forcing components during a dust outbreak Gwanju, Republic of Korea. Environ Monit Assess 137(1–3):111–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ogunjobi KO, Ajayi VO, Balogun IA (2007) Long term trend analysis of tropospheric total column ozone in Africa. Res J Appl Sci 2:280–284Google Scholar
  26. Oluleye A, Ogunjobi KO (2009) The relationship of Nigerian rainfall to global teleconnections and sea surface temperature. J of Meteorol Clim Sci 8:71–83Google Scholar
  27. Oluleye A, Okogbue EC (2013) Analysis of temporal and spatial variability of total column ozone over West Africa using daily TOMS measurements. Atmos Pollut Res 4:387–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Osinowo AA, Okogbue EC, Eresanya EO et al (2017) Evaluation of wind Potential and its trends in the Mid-Atlantic. Model Earth Syst Environ 3:45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Penner JE, Andreae M, Annegarn H, Barrie L, Feichter J, Hegg D, Jayaraman A, Leaitch R, Murphy., Nganga J, Pitari G, co-authors (2001) Aerosol, their direct and indirect effects, Climate Change 2001: the Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
  30. Pope CA (2000) Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who’s at risk? Environ Health Perspect 104(Supl. 4):713–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prados AI, Kondragunta S, Ciren P, Knapp K (2007) The GOES aerosol/smoke product (GASP) overNorth America: comparison to AERONET and MODIS observations. J Geophys Res 112:D15201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Prospero JM (2002) Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identifed with the Nimbus 7 total ozonemapping spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product. RevGeophys 40(1):1002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Raji KB, Ogunjobi KO, Akinsanola AA (2017) Radiative eefects of dust aerosol on West African climate using simulations from RegCM4. Model Earth Sys Environ 3(34):1–24Google Scholar
  34. Ramanathan V, Crutzen PJ, Kiehl JT, Rosenfeld D (2001) Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science 294(5549):2119–2124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tulloch M, Li J (2004) Applications of satellite remote sensing to urban air-quality monitoring: status and potential solutions to Canada. Int Soc Environ Inf Sci 2:846–854 EIA04-084Google Scholar
  36. Winker D (2003) Accounting for multiple scattering in retrievals from space lidar. Proc SPIE 5059:129Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering TechnologyRufus Giwa PolytechnicOwoNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Marine Science and TechnologyFederal University of TechnologyAkureNigeria
  3. 3.Department of GeographyObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  4. 4.Africa Regional Center for Space Science and Technonology Education-EnglishObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria

Personalised recommendations