Advertisement

Correlation of Uniaxial and Multiaxial Fatigue Models for Automobile Spring Life Assessment

  • Y.S. Kong
  • S. AbdullahEmail author
  • D. Schramm
  • M.Z. Omar
  • S.M. Haris
Research paper
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents a regression analysis of uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue life for automobile coil spring under various road excitations. Coil spring is a suspension component with complex geometry and shear loading which is applied during operating conditions. Hence, uniaxial strain measurement for durability assessment of coil spring is insufficient because the loadings are non-proportional. Rosette strain signals of coil spring under five different road conditions were obtained and used as input to uniaxial strain-life and multiaxial critical plane models to predict the spring fatigue life. During the multiaxial fatigue analysis, the strain biaxiality ratio of range 0.3 to 0.5 indicates the loadings as out-of-phase. Through a simple linear regression method, a linear regression model between uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue life were obtained with coefficient of determination value as high as 0.8696. This model provides significant contribution through correlating uniaxial to multiaxial fatigue life. Hence, uniaxial fatigue life predictions could be approximated to multiaxial for more conservative analysis through the application of generated linear models.

Keywords

Multiaxial fatigue Coil spring Critical plane Uniaxial fatigue Linear regression 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge KPT Malaysia (Mybrain15) and DAAD for the research funding.

References

  1. 1.
    Karolczuk A, Macha E (2005) A review of critical plane orientations in multiaxial fatigue failure criteria of metallic materials. Int J Fract 134:267–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glinka G, Shen G, Plumtree A (2007) A multiaxial fatigue strain energy density parameter related to the critical fracture plane. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 18(1):37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sines G (1959) Behaviour of metals under complex stresses. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 145–169Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Findley WN (1959) A theory for the effect of mean stress on fatigue of metals under combined torsion and axial load or bending. J Eng Ind:301–306Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dang Van K (1993) Macro-micro approach in high-cycle multiaxial fatigue. In: Advances in Multiaxial Fatigue. American Society for Testing and Materials STP 1191, Philadelphia, pp 120–130Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown MW, Miller K (1973) A theory for fatigue failure under multiaxial stress-strain conditions. Proc Inst Mech Eng 187:745–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown MW, Wang CH (1993) A path-independent parameter for fatigue under proportional and non-proportional loading. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 16(12):1285–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fatemi A, Socie DF (1988) A critical plane approach to multiaxial fatigue damage including out-of-phase loading. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 11(3):149–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carpinteri A, Spagnoli A, Vantadori S A review of multiaxial fatigue criteria for random variable amplitude loads. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 40(7):1007–1036Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shang DG, Sun GQ, Deng J, Yan CL (2007) Multiaxial fatigue damage parameter and life prediction for medium-carbon steel based on the critical plane approach. Int J Fatigue 29:2200–2207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahmadzadeh GR, Varvani-Farahani A (2016) Fatigue life assessment of steel samples under various irregular multiaxial loading spectra by means of two energy-based critical plane damage models. Int J Fatigue 84:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karolczuk A, Kluger K, Lagoda T (2016) A correction in the algorithm of fatigue life based on the critical plane approach. Int J Fatigue 83:174–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Llano-Vizcaya LD, Rubio-Gonzalez C, Mesmacque G, Cervantes-Hernandez T (2006) Multiaxial fatigue and failure analysis of helical compression springs. Eng Fail Anal 13:1303–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Putra TE, Abdullah S, Schramm D, Nuawi MZ, Bruckmann T (2015) Generating strain signals under consideration of road surface profiles. Mech Syst Signal Process 60-61:485–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abdullah S, Choi CJ, Giacomin JA, Yates JR (2006) Bump extraction algorithm for variable amplitude loading. Int J Fatigue 28(7):675–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Socie D, Dowing SD, and Utagawa S (2013) Benchmark problems in multiaxial fatigue. The tenth international conference on multiaxial fatigue and fracture, JapanGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lipson C, Juvenal RC (1963) Handbook of stress and strength – design and material application. MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee YL, Barkey ME, Kang HT (2012) Metal fatigue analysis handbook. Elsevier, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith KN, Watson P, Topper TH (1970) A stress-strain function for the fatigue of metals. J Mater 5:767–778Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brown MW, Miller KJ (1973) A theory of fatigue under multiaxial stress-strain conditions. Proc Inst Mech Eng 187:745–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miller KJ (1977) Fatigue under complex stress. Metal 11(8–9):432–438Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meggiolaro MA, de Castro JTP, Miranda ACO (2007) Comparison among fatigue life prediction methods and stress-strain models under multiaxial loading. Proceedings of COBEM 2007Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Verboom G, Koten H (2010) Vortex excitation: three design rules tested on 13 industrial chimneys. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 98(3):145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kamaya M, Kawakubo M (2015) Loading sequence effect on fatigue life of type 316 stainless steel. Int J Fatigue 81:10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hanssen E, Vogt M, Dilger K (2012) Fatigue assessment of arc welded automotive components using local stresses approaches: application to a track control arm. Int J Fatigue 34:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vishay Micro-Measurements (2007) Errors due to transverse sensitivity in strain gages, Tech Note TN-509, revised August 15Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kadhim NA, Abdullah S, Ariffin AK (2012) Effective strain damage model associated with finite element modelling and experimental validation. Int J Fatigue 36:194–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gillespie TD (1992) Fundamentals of vehicle dynamics. Society of Automotive Engineers, U.S.A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sener AS (2011) Determination of vehicle components fatigue life based on FEA method and experimental analysis. IJEMME 2(1):133–145Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    SAE Spring committee (1995) Spring design manual. SAE, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Board B (1982) Crack – initiation fatigue – data, analysis, trends and estimation, SAE technical paper 820682Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Faghidian SA (2016) A regularised approach to linear regression of fatigue life measurements. International Journal of Structural Integrity 7(1):95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ryu YI, Kang DO, Heo SJ, Yim HJ, Jeon JI (2010) Development of analytical process to reduce side load in strut-type suspension. J Mech Sci Technol 24:351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kong YS, Omar MZ, Chua LB, Abdullah S (2014) Fatigue life predictions of parabolic leaf spring under various road conditions. Eng Fail Anal 46:92–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Robert P (2015) Multiaxial fatigue life prediction, Proceedings 2015 HBM nCode products user group meeting, MIGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pun A (2003) Multiaxial fatigue models the real world. Mach Des 75(9):26–28Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sivák P, Ostertagová E (2012) Evaluation of fatigue tests by means of mathematical statistics. Procedia Engineering 48:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Abbasi F, Majzoobi GH (2017) Effect of out-of-phase loading on fretting fatigue response of Al7075-T6 under cyclic normal loading using a new testing apparatus. Eng Fract Mech.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2017.08.010
  39. 39.
    Johannesson P, Svensson T, Mare J (2005) Fatigue life prediction based on variable amplitude tests – methodology. Int J Fatigue 27:954–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zakaria KA, Abdullah S, Ghazali MJ, Azhari CH (2013) Influence of spectrum loading sequences on fatigue life in high-temperature environment. Eng Fail Anal 30:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Integrated Design for Advanced Mechanical Systems (PRISMA), Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Departmental Chair of MechatronicsUniversity of Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany
  3. 3.Centre for Materials Engineering and Smart Manufacturing (MERCU), Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations