Experimental Techniques

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 587–597 | Cite as

Simulation and Experimental Study of the Influence of Temperature Stress on the Intermittent Fault of an Electrical Connector

  • L. Kehong
  • Z. ZunqingEmail author
  • Z. Zaizhong


The electrical connector is an important basic element, and its electrical contact performance is easily changed by ambient factors, such as temperature, resulting in various intermittent and permanent faults of the electrical connector. The intermittent faults of the electrical connector are difficult to reproduce, raising serious challenges to equipment availability and mission success. This paper addresses the problem of the intermittent faults of electrical connectors caused by ambient temperature stress and provides qualitative analyses of the impacts of temperature stress on electrical contacts. A finite element simulation model of the contact pairs of electrical connectors is established. The characteristics of intermittent faults at different temperature stress levels for electrical connectors with different contact pair sizes and materials are simulated and analysed. Based on this simulation analysis, experimental studies are conducted on the mechanisms of different temperature stress levels, different contact pair sizes and materials on the intermittent faults of electrical connectors. The results show that external temperature stress and temperature impacts obviously influence the contact performance of the electrical connector and that random intermittent faults occur. The more extreme the temperature and the higher the temperature change rate are, the more obvious their influences.


Intermittent fault Temperature stress Electrical connector Contact resistance 



This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China under grant no. 2016YFF0203400, National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant nos 51675528 and 51605482.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


  1. 1.
    Russell G, Elliott ID (1991) Design of highly reliable VLSI processors incorporating concurrent error detection/correction [C]. IEE Euro Asic 3:1–4Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sharma R, Saluja KK (1988) An implementation and analysis of a concurrent built- in self- test technique [C]. Digest International Symposium on Fault- Tolerant Computing 6:164–169Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pan S, Hu Y, Li X (2012) Characterizing the vulnerability of microprocessor structures to intermittent faults [J]. IEEE Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) systems 5:777–790Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guilhemsang J, Heron O, Ventroux N, et al (2010) Emphasis on the existence of intermittent faults in embedded systems [C]. IEEE Workshop on Defect and Data Driven Testing 1–6Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sorensen BA, Kelly G, Sajecki A, Sorensen PW (1994) An analyzer for detecting intermittent faults in electronic devices[C]. Systems Readiness Technology Conference (AUTOTESTCON 1994) 417–421Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Syed WA, Khan S, Phillips P, Perinpanayagam S (2013) Intermittent fault-finding strategies[C]. 2nd International Through-life Engineering Services Conference 74–79Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steadman B, Berghout F, Olsen N (2008) Intermittent fault detection and isolation system[C]. AUTOTESTCON 37–40Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Steadman B, Sievert S, Sorensen B, Berghout F (2005) Attacking “bad actor” and “no fault found” electronic boxes[C]. AUTOTESTCON 821–824Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bolger G (1997) The selection of automotive connectors[D]. Coventry University, CoventryGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Swingler J, McBride JW (1998). The synergistic relationship of Stressesin the automotive connector[C]. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Electric Contact Phenomena 141–145Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahmad WS, Perinpanayagam S, Jennions I, Khan S (2014) Study on intermittent faults and electrical continuity [J]. ELSEVIER 71–75Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lianfen D (1988) Reliability design manual [M]. Aviation Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yanyan Luo, Xuyang Liu, Jie Hao, Zhen Wang, Lei Liu, Xiaoming Lin (2016) Research on thermal fatigue failure mechanism of aviation electrical connectors[J]. Acta Armamentarii 7:1266–1274Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu L, Lu N, Lin X, Kong Z (2015) Application and technology of electrical contact theory [M]. Machinery Industry Press 12Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang J (2016) Research on the thermoelectric effect of passive intermodulation of microwave devices[D]. Xidian University, Xi'anGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guangping Z, Li M, Xiaomao W, Li C, Xuemei L (2014) Research progress on the influence of size on resistivity of metallic materials[J]. Chinese J Mater Res 2:81–87Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zongquan S (2015) Research on common problems and countermeasures of contact system of electrical contact devices[J]. Science and Wealth 596–597Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ma J, Jingbo Y, Chaojun X (2014) Influence of ambiental temperature and humidity on reliability of aerospace electrical connector[J]. Electromechanical Components 2:28–30Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yunfei E, Shaofeng X, Xiaoqi H (2015) Reliability physics [M]. Publishing House of Electronics Industry 10:338Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Intelligent ScienceNational University of Defence TechnologyChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations