Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 354–363 | Cite as

The Effect of Negative Implicit Affect, Prime Visibility, and Gender on Effort-Related Cardiac Response

  • David Framorando
  • Guido H. E. GendollaEmail author



Based on the Implicit-Affect-Primes-Affect (IAPE) model (Gendolla 2012, 2015), we investigated the effect of affect primes’ visibility on effort-related cardiac response.


Participants worked on a cognitive “parity task” with integrated pictures of sad vs. angry faces that were briefly flashed (25 ms) vs. clearly visible (780 ms). We recorded cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) to assess effort mobilization.


As expected, PEP reactivity in the sadness-prime condition was stronger than in the anger-prime condition when the primes were briefly flashed, while the opposite pattern occurred when the affect primes were clearly visible. However, these effects only occurred for men, but not for women, as indicated by a significant prime x prime visibility x gender interaction.


These findings provide new evidence for the role of prime visibility as a moderator of automatic effort mobilization—and suggest that this moderator effect applies especially to men.


Implicit affect Effort Automaticity Cardiovascular response Gender 



David Framorando and Guido H. E. Gendolla, Geneva Motivation Lab, FPSE, Section of Psychology, University of Geneva, Switzerland. This research was supported by a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF 100014-162399) awarded to Guido Gendolla. We thank Deniz Kilicel for her help as hired experimenter.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest Statement

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

40750_2018_97_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 26 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geneva Motivation Lab, FPSE, Section of PsychologyUniversity of GenevaGeneva 4Switzerland

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