Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract: a Clinical Review
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Purpose of review
This review highlights the most common congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) that are encountered in pediatric practices. CAKUT are the most common cause of prenatally diagnosed developmental malformations and encompass a spectrum of disorders impacting lower urinary tract development as well as kidney development and function. In pediatric and adolescent populations, developmental abnormalities are the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease. The goal of this review is to provide pediatric providers a framework for appropriate clinical management as well as highlight when referral to subspecialty care is needed.
While the exact etiologies of CAKUT are not completely defined, new evidence demonstrates that genetic and molecular changes impact embryonic kidney and urinary tract development. As a result, phenotypes and clinical outcomes may be affected.
Because pediatric providers provide frontline care to children and adolescents with developmental kidney and urinary tract anomalies, updated knowledge of CAKUT pathogenesis, embryology, clinical management, and patient outcomes is needed. This manuscript reviews CAKUT etiologies and essential diagnostic, prognostic, and management strategies.
KeywordsNephrology Urology Congenital kidney anomalies Pediatrics Genetics Embryology
We acknowledge Ms. Lisa Feurer for assistance for the artwork shown in Fig. 1.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Emily Stonebrook declares that she has no conflict of interest. Monica Hoff declares that she has no conflict of interest. John David Spencer declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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