Epistaxis in Children: Evaluation and Management

Otolaryngology (EM Arjmand and D Sidell, Section Editors)
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  1. Topical Collection on Otolaryngology

Abstract

Purpose of review

To review treatment options for patients with both ongoing acute epistaxis and chronic recurring epistaxis.

Recent findings

While a common occurrence, epistaxis can successfully be treated with adequate first aid, without a medical provider in most cases. Despite its common nature, widespread knowledge of appropriate first aid is lacking. Recurrent episodes may require further testing depending on the severity. Although a minority of patients referred to specialists have significant underlying pathology, there is little guidance in the literature to help inform practitioners regarding which patients warrant referral. While treatment options for idiopathic pediatric recurrent epistaxis is not currently an active area of research, investigators are actively pursuing novel treatments for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and endoscopic surgery for juvenile nasal angiofibroma (two rare causes of recurrent epistaxis).

Summary

Epistaxis is a common problem in the pediatric population which can lead to patient and family distress. Knowledge of appropriate treatment pathways is lacking and an area for improvement. Epistaxis that persists despite conventional treatment, or epistaxis in the context of a family history of excessive bleeding or a personal history of other sources of recurrent bleeding, may warrant additional evaluation.

Keywords

Epistaxis Pediatric epistaxis Recurrent epistaxis Idiopathic epistaxis 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Colin Fuller declares that he has no conflict of interest.

J. Drew Prosser declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryAugusta University Medical CenterAugustaUSA

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