Counselors’ Knowledge and Attitudes of the Recovery Paradigm

  • Kathleen RuscittoEmail author
  • Corinne Wehby Bridges
Original Article


Counselors generally subscribe to a wellness or holistic paradigm; however, the recovery paradigm, with collaborative strategies and unique treatment planning, is a directed approach of mental health services that can allow counselors to help in the recovery process. Thus, the purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what factors contribute to counselors’ knowledge and attitudes of the recovery paradigm. Surveys were used to examine whether professional counselors’ years of experience, gender, professional setting, and licensure status correlate to their knowledge and attitudes as measured by the 4 subscales of the recovery knowledge inventory. The results of a multivariate multiple regression were not significant. However, the results of this study align with previous research outcomes indicating a need for counselors’ continued education and training on the recovery paradigm, which can impact consumers’ achievement of recovery goals through counselors’ improved knowledge and attitudes.


Recovery Counselors’ knowledge and attitudes Recovery knowledge inventory Mental health recovery 



  1. 1.
    Farkas MD, Anthony WA, Cohen MR. Psychiatric rehabilitation: the approach and its programs. In: Farkas MD, Anthony WA, editors. The Johns Hopkins series in contemporary medicine and public health. Psychiatric rehabilitation programs: putting theory into practice. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1989. p. 1–27.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Farkas M, Anthony W. Psychiatric rehabilitation interventions: a review. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2010;22:114–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2013 national survey on drug use and health: mental health findings. 2014. Accessed 3 Jan 2017.
  4. 4.
    New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. Achieving the promise: transforming mental health care in America. Final report (DHHS publication no. SMA-03-3832). 2003. Accessed 3 Jan 2007.
  5. 5.
    Myers JE. Wellness, prevention, development: the cornerstone of the profession. JCD. 1992;71(2):136–9.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Myers JE, Sweeney TJ. Wellness counseling: the evidence base for practice. JCD. 2008;86(4):482–93.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roscoe LJ. Wellness: a review of theory and measurement for counselors. JCD. 2009;87(2):216–26. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sterling EW, von Esenwein SA, Tucker S, Fricks L, Druss BG. Integrating wellness, recovery, and self-management for mental health consumers. Community Ment Health J. 2010;46(2):130–8. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cavelti M, Homan P, Vauth R. The impact of thought disorder on therapeutic alliance and personal recovery in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an exploratory study. Psychiatry Res. 2016;23:992–8. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Green CA, Janoff SL, Yarborough BH, Paulson RI. The recovery group project: development of an intervention led jointly by peer and professional counselors. Psychiatr Serv. 2013;64(12):1211. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilrycx G, Croon M, Van den Broek A, van Nieuwenhuizen C. Evaluation of a recovery-oriented care training program for mental healthcare professionals: effects on mental health consumer outcomes. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015;61(2):164–73. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chronister J, Chou C, Liao H. The role of stigma coping and social support in mediating the effect of societal stigma on internalized stigma, mental health recovery, and quality of life among people with serious mental illness. J Community Psychol. 2013;41(5):582–600. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sickel AE, Seacat JD, Nabors NA. Mental health stigma update: a review of consequences. Adv Ment Health. 2014;12(3):202–15. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ostrow L, Adams N. Recovery in the USA: from politics to peer support. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2012;24(1):70–8. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kidd S, Kenny A, McKinstry C. The meaning of recovery in a regional mental health service: an action research study. J Adv Nurs. 2015;71(1):181–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clearly A, Dowling M. Knowledge and attitudes of mental health professionals in Ireland to the concept of recovery in mental health: a questionnaire survey. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2009;16(6):539–45. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Crowe TP, Kelly P, Pepper J, McLennan R, Deane FP, Buckingham M. Service based internship training to prepare workers to support the recovery of people with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2013;11(2):269–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gaffey K, Evans D, Walsh F. Knowledge and attitudes of Irish mental health professionals to the concept of recovery from mental illness—five years later. Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2016;23(6/7):387–98. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meehan T, Glover H. Using the recovery knowledge inventory (RKI) to assess the effectiveness of a consumer-led recovery training program for service providers. Psychiatr Rehabil. 2009;32(3):223–6. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peebles SA, Mabe PA, Fenley G, Buckley PF, Bruce TO, Narasimhan M, Williams E. Immersing practitioners in the recovery model: an educational program evaluation. J Community Ment Health. 2009;45(4):239–45. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Salgado J, Deane F, Crowe T, Oades L. Hope and improvements in mental health service providers’ recovery attitudes following training. Ment Health. 2010;19(3):243–8. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bedregal LE, O’Connell M, Davidson L. The recovery knowledge inventory: assessment of mental health staff knowledge and attitudes about recovery. Psychiatr Rehabil. 2006;30(2):96–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Field A. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2013.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Creswell JW. Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    American Counseling Association (ACA). 2014 ACA code of ethics. 2014. Retrieved from Accessed 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature India Private Limited 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ProvidenceGreat FallsUSA
  2. 2.Walden UniversityMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Post FallsUSA

Personalised recommendations