Corrosion and Wear Behaviour of Spark Plasma-Sintered NiCrCoAlTiW-Ta Superalloy

  • Olugbenga OgunbiyiEmail author
  • Tamba Jamiru
  • Rotimi Sadiku
  • Lodewyk Beneke
  • Oluwagbenga Adesina
  • Babatunde Abiodun Obadele


NiCrCoAlTiW-Ta superalloy was sintered using spark plasma sintering technique. The influence of starting powder particle size on the corrosion and dry sliding wear behaviour of sintered NiCrCoAlTiW-Ta superalloy was investigated. The nickel matrix (> 60 wt%) was varied over three different particle sizes (3–44, 45–106 and 106–150 µm). The powders were sintered at 1100 °C, heating rate of 100 °C/min and pressure of 32 MPa. The effect of particle sizes on sintered density, microhardness, corrosion and wear were reported. The results show that the sintered density of 97.48% and microhardness value of 382.88 HV0.1 were reported for the smallest starting powder. Furthermore, the microstructures of the sintered alloy revealed the presence of three major phases: γ, γ′ and the precipitated solid solution phase. There was an improvement in the corrosion response in relation to the particle size of the starting powder. This indicates that the least corrosive alloy has the least starting powder particle size. It has a corrosion rate of 0.047 and 0.056 mm/year in saline and acidic media, respectively. Also, the coefficient of friction increased with increase in powder particle size. However, the poor wear response of the alloys with bigger powder particle size could be attributed to poor adhesion of the oxide layer.


Particle size Superalloy Spark plasma sintering Corrosion Wear 



This work is funded by the Research and Innovation Directorate of Tshwane University of Technology and supported, in part, by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics and Industrial Design, Institute for NanoEngineering Research (INER), Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and the Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment of the Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa.


  1. 1.
    Konter M, Thumann M (2001) Materials and manufacturing of advanced industrial gas turbine components. J Mater Process Technol 117(3):386–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Caron P, Khan T (1999) Evolution of Ni-based superalloys for single crystal gas turbine blade applications. Aerosp Sci Technol 3(8):513–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hashizume R et al (2004) Development of Ni-based single crystal superalloys for power-generation gas turbines. Superalloys 2004:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Donachie MJ, Donachie SJ (2002) Superalloys: a technical guide. ASM International, Materials ParkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blavette D, Cadel E, Deconihout B (2000) The role of the atom probe in the study of nickel-based superalloys. Mater Charact 44(1–2):133–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yeh J-W (2013) Alloy design strategies and future trends in high-entropy alloys. JOM 65(12):1759–1771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murty BS et al (2019) High-entropy alloys. Elsevier, San DiegoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Francis E et al (2014) High-temperature deformation mechanisms in a polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy studied by neutron diffraction and electron microscopy. Acta Mater 74:18–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wusatowska-Sarnek AM, Blackburn MJ, Aindow M (2003) Techniques for microstructural characterization of powder-processed nickel-based superalloys. Mater Sci Eng A 360(1–2):390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang C et al (2017) Influence of powder properties on densification mechanism during spark plasma sintering. Scr Mater 139:96–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shongwe MB et al (2016) A comparative study of spark plasma sintering and hybrid spark plasma sintering of 93 W–4.9 Ni–2.1 Fe heavy alloy. Int J Refract Metals Hard Mater 55:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yamanoglu R et al (2014) Characterisation of nickel alloy powders processed by spark plasma sintering. Powder Metall 57(5):380–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pasebani S et al (2015) Oxide dispersion strengthened nickel based alloys via spark plasma sintering. Mater Sci Eng A 630:155–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shongwe MB et al (2015) Effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe–30% Ni alloys produced by spark plasma sintering. J Alloy Compd 649:824–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu L et al (2016) A new insight into high-strength Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8 alloys with bimodal microstructure fabricated by semi-solid sintering. Sci Rep 6:23467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Diouf S, Molinari A (2012) Densification mechanisms in spark plasma sintering: effect of particle size and pressure. Powder Technol 221:220–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Makuch N et al (2019) Influence of niobium and molybdenum addition on microstructure and wear behavior of laser-borided layers produced on Nimonic 80A-alloy. Trans Nonferr Metals Soc China 29(2):322–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang X-Y et al (2014) Fretting wear behavior of Inconel 690 in hydrazine environments. Trans Nonferr Metals Soc China 24(2):360–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jun C et al (2015) Corrosion wear synergistic behavior of Hastelloy C276 alloy in artificial seawater. Trans Nonferr Metals Soc China 25(2):661–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang X-Y et al (2012) Fretting wear and friction oxidation behavior of 0Cr20Ni32AlTi alloy at high temperature. Trans Nonferr Metals Soc China 22(4):825–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xiao W-H et al (2018) Mechanical and tribological behaviors of graphene/Inconel 718 composites. Trans Nonferr Metals Soc China 28(10):1958–1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miramontes J et al (2014) Electrochemical noise analysis of nickel based superalloys in acid solutions. Int J Electrochem Sci 9:523–533Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nickchi T, Alfantazi A (2010) Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Incoloy 800 in sulphate solutions containing hydrogen peroxide. Corros Sci 52(12):4035–4045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chen T et al (2013) Influence of surface modifications on pitting corrosion behavior of nickel-base alloy 718, Part 1: effect of machine hammer peening. Corros Sci 77:230–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Batista W et al (1988) The electrochemical behaviour of INCOLOY 800 and AISI 304 steel in solutions that are similar to those within occluded corrosion cells. Corros Sci 28(8):759–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Du H et al (2003) Microscopy of wear affected surface produced during sliding of Nimonic 80A against Stellite 6 at 20°C. Mater Sci Eng A 357(1–2):412–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Diouf S, Menapace C, Molinari A (2012) Study of effect of particle size on densification of copper during spark plasma sintering. Powder Metall 55(3):228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yu J, Huang L, Luo H (2019) Effects of Cu particle size on CuSnFeNi/diamond composite processed using hybrid microwave sintering. Powder Metall 62(2):124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Panagopoulos C, Giannakopoulos K, Saltas V (2003) Wear behavior of nickel superalloy, CMSX-186. Mater Lett 57(29):4611–4616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rani S, Agrawal AK, Rastogi V (2017) Failure analysis of a first stage IN738 gas turbine blade tip cracking in a thermal power plant. Case Stud Eng Fail Anal 8:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang Z-H et al (2014) The sintering mechanism in spark plasma sintering–proof of the occurrence of spark discharge. Scr Mater 81:56–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vander Voort G, Manilova E (2004) Metallographic techniques for superalloys. Microsc Microanal 10(S02):690–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dean SW (2007) Development of electrochemical standards for corrosion testing. J ASTM Int 4(9):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Palavar O, Özyürek D, Kalyon A (2015) Artificial neural network prediction of aging effects on the wear behavior of IN706 superalloy. Mater Des 82:164–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alaneme KK, Odoni BU (2016) Mechanical properties, wear and corrosion behavior of copper matrix composites reinforced with steel machining chips. Eng Sci Technol Int J 19(3):1593–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mishra S, Chandra K, Prakash S (2013) Dry sliding wear behaviour of nickel-, iron-and cobalt-based superalloys. Tribol-Mater Surf Interfaces 7(3):122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ma S et al (2018) Effects of temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of IN718 reinforced by reduced graphene oxide through spark plasma sintering. J Alloy Compd 767:675–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vahlas, C. and Z. Li (2009) Microstructural and mechanical properties of powder NiCoCrAlYTa superalloy consolidated by spark plasma sintering. in 2009 IEEE Toronto International Conference Science and Technology for Humanity (TIC-STH). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    García JMJ et al (2010) Spark plasma sintering and characterization of NiCoCrAlY-Ta superalloy powder. J Mater Sci Eng 4(11):57–63Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Andersson DA, Korzhavyi PA, Johansson B (2008) First-principles based calculation of binary and multicomponent phase diagrams for titanium carbonitride. Calphad 32(3):543–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zavaliangos A et al (2004) Temperature evolution during field activated sintering. Mater Sci Eng A 379(1–2):218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vervoort P, Vetter R, Duszczyk J (1996) Overview of powder injection molding. Adv Perform Mater 3(2):121–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wikstrom N, Ojo O, Chaturvedi M (2006) Influence of process parameters on microstructure of transient liquid phase bonded Inconel 738LC superalloy with Amdry DF-3 interlayer. Mater Sci Eng A 417(1–2):299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jalilvand V et al (2013) Microstructural evolution during transient liquid phase bonding of Inconel 738LC using AMS 4777 filler alloy. Mater Charact 75:20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Golezani A, Bageri M, Samadi R (2016) Microstructural change and impact toughness property of Inconel 738LC after 12 years of service. Eng Fail Anal 59:624–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liu KT, Duh JG (2008) Grain size effects on the corrosion behavior of Ni50.5Ti49.5 and Ni45.6Ti49.3Al5.1 films. 1 films. J Electroanal Chem 618(1–2):45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ghosh S et al (2006) Improved pitting corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–Cu alloys in 3.0 wt% NaCl solution. J Alloys Compd 426(1–2):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhao D et al (2019) Improvement on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of titanium-tantalum alloys in situ fabricated via selective laser melting. J Alloy Compd 804:288–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Obadele BA et al (2018) Spark plasma sintering behaviour of commercially pure titanium micro-alloyed with Ta-Ru. Part Sci Technol 37:1–7Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dong H, Bell T (2000) Enhanced wear resistance of titanium surfaces by a new thermal oxidation treatment. Wear 238(2):131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bai L et al (2016) Influence of third particle on the tribological behaviors of diamond-like carbon films. Sci Rep 6:38279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lavella M, Botto D (2011) Fretting wear characterization by point contact of nickel superalloy interfaces. Wear 271(9–10):1543–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhen J et al (2014) Friction and wear behavior of nickel-alloy-based high temperature self-lubricating composites against Si3N4 and Inconel 718. Tribol Int 75:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zhou K et al (2011) Size prediction of particles caused by chipping wear of hard coatings. Wear 271(7–8):1203–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics and Industrial DesignTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Chemical, Institute for NanoEngineering Research (INER), Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Centre for Nanoengineering and Tribocorrosion (CNT), School of Mining, Metallurgy and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations