Evaluation of Anti-biofouling Progresses in Marine Application

  • O. P. AbioyeEmail author
  • C. A. Loto
  • O. S. I. Fayomi


Biofouling is detrimental and has been a major concern in the marine industry for several decades. This phenomenon is the accumulation, colonization and attack of organisms—which are both micro and macro, to assemblies, parts and/or structures that are submerged in freshwater and other marine environments. Even despite all the exceptional indispensable and indisputable characteristics of alloys such as steel, biofouling continues to be a major source of failures of these alloys, thereby limiting their use in service. This study presents a review of the existing means of protection against biofouling which are basically the use of paints and electrolytic deposition of anti-biofouling agents such as some nano-composite coatings. The different types of systems from the first-generational coatings such as tributyltin self-polishing copolymer paints to the novel nano-composite coatings were discussed. Ultimately, the use of nano-materials and composites consisting some anti-biofouling natural products has identified to be a promising way of combating biofouling issues in the maritime.


Biofouling Corrosion Electrodeposition Marine application Coatings Nano-composite 



Our sincere gratitude goes to Covenant University as the prestigious institution has provided the financial support needed to make this review work come to an actualization for publication.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This review work has no ethical issues.


  1. 1.
    Wang W, Cao Z (2016) Opinion on the recent development of environmentally friendly marine anti-fouling coating. Sci China Technol Sci 59(12):1968–1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Champ MA (2003) Economic and environmental impacts on ports and harbours from the convention to ban harmful marine antifouling systems. Mar Pollut Bull 46(8):935–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vijayan SR, Santhiyagu P, Singamuthu M, Kumari AN, Jayaraman R, Ethiraj K (2014) Synthesis and characterization of silver and gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of seaweed, Turbinaria conoides, and their antimicrofouling activity. Sci World J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yebra DM, Kiil S, Dam-Johansen K (2004) Antifouling technology—past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Prog Org Coat 50(2):75–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Selim MS, Shenashen MA, El-Safty SA, Higazy SA, Selim MM, Isago H, Elmarakbi A (2017) Recent progress in marine foul-release polymeric nanocomposite coatings. Prog Mater Sci 87:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ciriminna R, Bright FV, Pagliaro M (2015) Ecofriendly antifouling marine coatings. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3:559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lindholdt A (2015) Fuel efficiency and fouling control coatings in maritime transport. PhD Thesis, Technical University of DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoa ND, El-Safty SA (2011) Synthesis of mesoporous NiO nanosheets for the detection of toxic NO2 gas. Chem-Eur J 17(46):12896–12901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dahlback B, Blanck H, Nyden M (2010) The challenge to find new sustainable antifouling approaches for shipping. Coast Mar Sci 34(1):212–215Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nguyen H, El-Safty SA (2011) Meso-and macroporous Co3O4 nanorods for effective VOC gas sensors. J Phys Chem C 115(17):8466–8474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xue L, Lu X, Wei H, Long P, Xu J, Zheng Y (2014) Bio-inspired self-cleaning PAAS hydrogel released coating for marine antifouling. J Colloid Interface Sci 421:178–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Almeida E, Diamantino TC, de Sousa O (2007) Marine paints the particular case of antifouling paints. Prog Org Coat 59:2–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Suman TY, Radhika Rajasree SR, Kirubagaran R (2015) Evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity on marine algae Chlorella vulgaris through flow cytometric, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress analysis. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kiil S, Weinell CE, Yebra DM, Dam-Johansen K (2007) Marine biofouling protection: design of controlled release antifouling paints. Chem Prod Des 7:181–238Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sjollema SB, García GM, van der Geest HG, Kraak MHS, Booij P, Vethaak AD et al (2014) Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae. Environ Pollut 187:106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nir S, Reches M (2016) Bio-inspired antifouling approaches: the quest towards non-toxic and non-biocidal materials. Curr Opin Biotechnol 39:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kotrikla A (2009) Environmental management aspects for TBT antifouling wastes from the shipyards. J Environ Manag 90:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Coneski PN, Weise NK, Fulmer PA et al (2013) Development and evaluation of self-polishing urethane coatings with tethered quaternary ammonium biocides. Prog Org Coat 76:1376–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fabrice A, Fabienne F, Karine R et al (2015) Development of hybrid anti-fouling paints. Prog Org Coat 87:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin CH, Yeh YH, Lin WC et al (2014) Novel silicone hydrogel based on PDMS and PEGMA for contact lens application. Colloids Surf B 123:986–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gao M (2014) Extraction and performance study of antifouling compounds produced by marine microorganism and microalgae. Ocean University of ChinaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shi HW, Liu FC, Wang ZY et al (2010) Research progress of corrosion-resisting paints for marine application. Corros Sci Prot Technol 22(1):43–46Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xu Q (2005) Evaluation of toxicity of capsaicin and zosteric acid and their potential application as antifoulants. Environ Toxicol 20:467–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yan XF, Yu LM, Jiang XH (2013) Synthesis of acrylamides containing capsaicin derivative and their bacteriostatic activity and antifouling capability. Period Ocean Univ China 43:64–67Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen L (2015) Development of anti-fouling coating using in marine environment. Int J Environ Monit Anal 3(5):373–376. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferrari M, Benedetti A, Santini E et al (2015) Biofouling control by superhydrophobic surfaces in shallow euphotic seawater. Colloid Surface A 480:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patel NS, Jauhariand S, Mehta GN, Al-Deyab SS, Warad I, Hammoouti B (2013) Mild steel corrosion inhibition by various plant extract in 0.5M sulphuric acid. Int J Electrochem Sci 8:2635–2655Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Popoola API, Aigbodion VS, Fayomi OSI (2016) Surface characterization, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of ternary based Zn–ZnO–SiO2 composite coating of mild steel. J Alloys Compd 654:561–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Loto CA, Loto RT, Joseph OO (2017) Effect of benzamide on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in sulphuric acid. S Afr J Chem 70:38–43Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nguyen-tri P, Nguyen TA, Carriere P, Xuan CN (2018) Nanocomposite coatings: preparation, characterization, properties and application. Int J Corros 2:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fayomi OSI, Kanyane L, Popoola P, Oyedepo S (2018) Electrolytic deposition of super-smart composite coating of Zn–V2O5–NbO2 on low carbon steel for defence application. Def Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ajayi OO, Omowa OF, Omotosho OA, Abioye OP, Akinlabi ET, Akinlabi SA, Abioye AA, Owoeye FT, Afolalu SA (2018) Experimental investigation of the effect of ZnO-Citrus sinensis nano-additive on the electrokinetic deposition of zinc on mild steel in acid chloride. In TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Springer, Cham, pp 35–40Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Popoola API, Fayomi OSI (2011) Effect of some process variables on zinc coated low carbon steel substrates. Sci Res Essays 6(20):4264–4272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tesler AB, Kim P, Kolle S, Howell C, Ahanotu O, Aizenberg J (2015) Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based on electrodeposited nanoporous tungstite films on steel. Nat Commun 6:8649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Raghupathy Y, Natarajan KA, Srivastava C (2017) Microstructure, electrochemical behaviour and bio-fouling of electrodeposited nickel matrix-silver nanoparticles composite coatings on copper. Surf Coat Technol 328:266–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Balasubramanian V, Rajaram R, Palanichamy S, Subramanian G, Mathivanan K, Pugazhendhi A (2018) Lanosterol expressed bio-fouling inhibition on Gulf of Mannar coast, India. Prog Org Coat 115:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fakinle BS, Odekanle EL, Olalekan AP, Odunlami OA, Sonibare JA (2018) Impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from vehicular activities on the ambient air quality of Lagos mega city. Environ Qual Manag 27(4):73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Selvin J, Lipton AP (2004) Antifouling activity of bioactive substances extracted from Holothuria scabra. Hydrobiologia 513:251–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dobretsov S, Teplitski M, Bayer M, Gunasekera S, Proksch P, Paul VJ (2011) Inhibition of marine biofouling by bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors. Biofouling 27:893–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Armstrong E, Boyd KG, Burgess JG (2000) Prevention of marine biofouling using natural compounds from marine organisms. Biotechnol Annu Rev 6:221–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jia MY, Zhang JY, Zhang ZM, Yu LM, Wang J (2018) The application of Ag-PPy composite coating in the cathodic polarization antifouling. Mater Lett 230:283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yee MSL, Khiew PS, Lim SS, Chiu WS, Tan YF, Kok YY, Leong CO (2017) Enhanced marine antifouling performance of silver–titania nanotube composites from hydrothermal processing. Colloids Surf A 520:701–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhang B, Li J, Zhao X, Hu X, Yang L, Wang N, Li Y, Hou B (2016) Biomimetic one step fabrication of manganese stearate superhydrophobic surface as an efficient barrier against marine corrosion and Chlorella vulgaris-induced biofouling. Chem Eng J 306:441–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Odunlami OA, Elehinafe FB, Oladimeji TE, Fajobi MA, Okedere OB, Fakinle BS (2018) Implications of lack of maintenance of motorcycles on ambient air quality. IOP Conf Ser: Mater Sci Eng 413(1):012055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ilhan-Sungur E, Cansever N, Cotuk A (2007) Microbial corrosion of galvanized steel by a freshwater strain of sulphate reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.). Corros Sci 49:1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Duan J, Wu S, Zhang X, Huang G, Du M, Hou B (2008) Corrosion of carbon steel influenced by anaerobic biofilm in natural seawater. Electrochim Acta 54:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhai X, Sun C, Li K, Agievich M, Duan J, Hou B (2016) Composite deposition mechanism of 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one in zinc films for enhanced corrosion resistant properties. J Ind Eng Chem 36:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Angello JE, Corrigan AM, Garg RK, Hewitt SS, Hudgins KL, Lester EC, Sorensen CA, Wilson MR, Brinkman BM, Louis GE (2012) A rapid adaptive needs assessment kit for water quality monitoring in humanitarian assistance & disaster response applications. Syst Inf Eng Des Symp. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Casoli E, Ventura D, Modica MV, Belluscio A, Capello M, Oliverio M, Ardizzone G (2016) A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L.(Bivalvia: Mollusca) into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster. Mediterr Mar Sci 17(2):404–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Al-Awadhi H, Dashti N, Kansour M, Sorkhoh N, Radwan S (2012) Hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria associated with biofouling materials from offshore waters of the Arabian Gulf. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 69:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Al-Mailem D, Kansour M, Radwan (2015) Bacterial communities associated with biofouling materials used in bench-scale hydrocarbon bioremediation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(5):3570–3585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hewitt CL, Campbell ML, Rawlinson N, Coutts ADM (2011) Vessel biofouling risk assessment. Report for the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, National Centre for Marine Conservation, 8Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Araújo PA, Miller DJ, Correia PB, Van Loosdrecht MCM, Kruithof JC, Freeman BD, Paul DR, Vrouwenvelder JS (2012) Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control. Desalination 295:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Epstein AK, Wong TS, Belisle RA, Boggs EM, Aizenberg J (2012) Liquid-infused structured surfaces with exceptional anti-biofouling performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(33):13182–13187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Piola RF, Dunmore RA, Forrest BM (2009) Assessing the efficacy of spray-delivered ‘eco-friendly’ chemicals for the control and eradication of marine fouling pests. Biofouling 26(2):187–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ruffolo SA, Macchia A, La Russa MF, Mazza L, Urzì C, De Leo F, Barberio M, Crisci GM (2013) Marine antifouling for underwater archaeological sites: TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2. Int J Photoenergy. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Abioye OP, Abioye AA, Atanda PO, Osinkolu GA, Folayan AJ (2017) Numerical simulation of outer die angle of equal channel angular extrusion process. Int J Mech Eng Technol 8(12):264–273Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Abioye A, Abioye OP, Ajayi OO, Afolalu SA, Fajobi MA, Atanda PO (2018) Mechanical and microstructural characterization of ductile iron produced from fuel-fired rotary furnace. Int J Mech Eng Technol 9(1):694–704Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Abioye AA, Atanda PO, Abioye OP, Akinlabi SA, Akinlabi ET, Bolu CA, Afolalu SA, Ajayi OO, Ohijeagbon IO (2018) A review on automotive industries and foundries in Nigeria. IOP Conf Ser: Mater Sci Eng 413:012003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bavya M, Mohanapriya P, Pazhanimurugan R, Balagurunathan R (2011) Potential bioactive compound from marine actinomycetes against biofouling bacteria. NISCAIR-CSIR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Banerjee I, Pangule RC, Kane RS (2011) Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms. Adv Mater 23(6):690–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mostafaei A, Nasirpouri F (2013) Preparation and characterization of a novel conducting nanocomposite blended with epoxy coating for antifouling and antibacterial applications. J Coat Technol Res 10(5):679–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Raghupathi KR, Koodali RT, Manna AC (2011) Size-dependent bacterial growth inhibition and mechanism of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Langmuir 27(7):4020–4028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Choi O, Hu Z (2008) Size dependent and reactive oxygen species related nanosilver toxicity to nitrifying bacteria. Environ Sci Technol 42(12):4583–4588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Briand JF (2009) Marine antifouling laboratory bioassays: an overview of their diversity. Biofouling 25(4):297–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. P. Abioye
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. A. Loto
    • 1
    • 2
  • O. S. I. Fayomi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations