The present experiment investigated whether the interspersion of baseline probes among emergent test trials would enhance the yields of equivalence class formation following the exposure to the One-to-Many (OTM) training structure. Twenty adults were exposed to two test protocols, in counterbalanced order: Simultaneous Protocol with Baseline Intermixed and Simultaneous Protocol with Posttest of Baseline (Conditions MixB and PTB, respectively). The conditions varied in respect to test procedure and stimuli set. Both started by training AB, AC, AD, and AE relations concurrently. Next, a test assessed the maintenance of baseline and the emergence of symmetry (BA, CA, DA, EA) and equivalence (BC, BD, BE, CB, CD, CE, DB, DC, DE, EB, EC, ED) relations. In Condition MixB, all test trials were presented concurrently. In Condition PTB, baseline probes were presented after symmetry and equivalence were assessed simultaneously. All participants formed equivalence classes in both conditions. Condition MixB presented slightly lower yields of immediate emergence (16 participants) than Condition PTB (18). Three out of the four participants with delayed emergence in Condition MixB initially failed in symmetry trials, the other two in Condition PTB failed exclusively in equivalence trials. Condition MixB produced significantly faster correct responses over the first five equivalence test trials. The results support that the OTM training structure is highly effective with normal adults, regardless of the interspersion of baseline probes in the test. Also, these results have implications for conclusions about the relevant variables for the OTM efficacy.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adams, B. J., Fields, L., & Verhave, T. (1993). Effects of test order on intersubject variability during equivalence class formation. The Psychological Record, 43, 133–152. Retrieved on 2018, November 5. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232501190_Effects_of_test_order_on_intersubject_variability_during_equivalence_class_formation.
Arntzen, E., Granmo, S., & Fields, L. (2017). The relation between sorting tests and matching-to-sample tests in the formation of equivalence classes. The Psychological Record, 67, 81–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-016-0209-9.
Arntzen, E., & Nartey, R. K. (2018). Equivalence class formation as a function of preliminary training with pictorial stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 110(2), 275–291. https://doi.org/10.1002/jeab.466
Arntzen, E., Grondahl, T., & Eilifsen, C. (2010). The effects of different training structures in the establishment of conditional discriminations and subsequent performance on tests for stimulus equivalence. The Psychological Record, 60, 437–461. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395720.
Arntzen, E., & Hansen, S. (2011). Training structures and the formation of equivalence classes. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 12, 483–503. https://doi.org/10.1080/15021149.2011.11434397.
Arntzen, E., & Holth, P. (1997). Probability of stimulus equivalence as a function of training design. The Psychological Record, 47, 309–320. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395227.
Arntzen, E., & Holth, P. (2000). Equivalence outcome in single subjects as a function of training structure. The Psychological Record, 50, 603–628. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395374.
Arntzen, E., Nartey, R. K., & Fields, L. (2014). Identity and delay functions of meaningful stimuli: enhanced equivalence class formation. The Psychological Record, 64, 349–360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-014-0066-3.
Arntzen, E., & Nikolaisen, S. L. (2011). Establishing equivalence classes in children using familiar and abstract stimuli and many-to-one and one-to-many training structures. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 12, 105–120. https://doi.org/10.1080/15021149.2011.11434358.
Arntzen, E., & Vaidya, M. (2008). The effect of baseline training structure on equivalence class formation in children. Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Bulletin, 26, 1–8. Retrieved on 2018, November 5. http://www.equivalence.net/Equivalence.net/pdf/Arntzen_Vaidya_2008.pdf.
Baron, A. (1985). Measurement scales and the age-complexity hypothesis. Experimental Aging Research, 11, 193–199. https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738508259187.
Buffington, D. M., Fields, L., & Adams, B. J. (1997). Enhancing equivalence class formation by pretraining of other equivalence classes. The Psychological Record, 47, 69–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395213.
Carrigan, P. F. C., & Sidman, M. (1992). Conditional discrimination and equivalence relations: a theoretical analysis of control by negative stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 58, 183–204. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1992.58-183.
Eilifsen, C., & Arntzen, E. (2009). On the role of trial types in tests for stimulus equivalence. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 10, 187–202. https://doi.org/10.1080/15021149.2009.11434318.
Fields, L., Adams, B. J., Newman, S., & Verhave, T. (1992). Interactions among emergent relations during equivalence class formation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45B, 125–138. https://doi.org/10.1080/14640749208401013.
Fields, L., Arntzen, E., & Moksness, M. (2014). Stimulus sorting: a quick and sensitive index of equivalence class formation. The Psychological Record, 64, 487–498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-014-0034-y.
Fields, L., Hobbie-Reeve, S. A., Adams, B. J., & Reeve, K. F. (1999). Effects of training directionality and class size on equivalence class formation by adults. The Psychological Record, 49, 703–723. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395336.
Fields, L., Landon-Jimenez, D. V., Buffington, D. M., & Adams, B. J. (1995). Maintained nodal-distance effects in equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 64, 129–145. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1995.64-129.
Fields, L., Reeve, K. F., Rosen, D., Varelas, A., Adams, B. J., Belanich, J., & Hobbie, S. A. (1997). Using the simultaneous protocol to study equivalence class formation: the facilitating effects of nodal number and size of previously established equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 67, 367–389. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1997.67-367.
Fields, L., Varelas, A., Reeve, K. F., Belanich, J., Wadhwa, P., Derosse, P., & Rosen, D. (2000). Effects of prior conditional discrimination training, symmetry, transitivity, and equivalence testing on the emergence of new equivalence classes. The Psychological Record, 50, 443–466. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395365.
Fields, L., Verhave, T., & Fath, S. (1984). Stimulus equivalence and transitive associations: a methodological analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 42, 143–157. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1984.42-143.
Harlow, H. F. (1949). The formation of learning sets. Psychological Review, 56, 51–65. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0062474.
Hayes, S. C., & Hayes, L. J. (1992). Verbal relations and the evolution of behavior analysis. American Psychologist, 47, 1383–1395. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.11.1383.
Hove, O. (2003). Differential probability of equivalence class formation following a one-to-many versus a many-to-one training structure. The Psychological Record, 53, 617–634. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395456.
Iman, A. (2006). Experimental control of nodality via equal presentations of conditional discriminations in different equivalence protocols under speed and no-speed conditions. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 85, 107–124. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2006.58-04.
Iman, A., & Warner, T. A. (2014). Test order effects in simultaneous protocols. Learning & Behavior, 42(1), 93–103. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-013-0128-4.
Pilgrim, C., & Galizio, M. (1996). Stimulus equivalence: a class of correlations, or a correlation of classes? In T. R. Zentall & P. M. Smeets (Eds.), Stimulus class formation in humans and animals (pp. 173–195). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science.
Rawls, M., & Vaidya, M. (2005). A within-subject comparison of stimulus equivalence training structures. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved on 2018, November 5. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4841/
Saunders, K. J., Saunders, R. R., Williams, D. C., & Spradlin, J. E. (1993). An interaction of instructions and training design on stimulus class formation: extending the analysis of equivalence. The Psychological Record, 43, 725–744. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395909.
Saunders, R. R., Drake, K. M., & Spradlin, J. E. (1999). Equivalence class establishment, expansion, and modification in preschool children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 71, 195–214. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1999.71-195.
Saunders, R. R., & Green, G. (1999). A discrimination analysis of training-structure effects on stimulus equivalence outcomes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 72, 117–137. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1999.72-117.
Sidman, M., Kirk, B., & Willson-Morris, M. (1985). Six-member stimulus classes generated by conditional-discrimination procedures. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 21–42. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1985.43-21.
Sidman, M., & Tailby, W. (1982). Conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: an expansion of the testing paradigm. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 5–22. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1982.37-5.
Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2005). Establishing equivalence classes in preschool children with one-to-many and many-to-one training protocols. Behavioural Processes, 69, 281–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2004.12.009.
Smeets, P. M., Dymond, S., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2000). Instructions, stimulus equivalence, and stimulus sorting: effects of sequential testing arrangements and a default option. The Psychological Record, 50, 339–354. Retrieved on 2018, November 5. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/tpr/vol50/iss2/8/.
Smeets, P. M., Leader, G., & Barnes, D. (1997). Establishing stimulus classes in adults and children using a respondent-type training procedure: a follow-up study. The Psychological Record, 47, 285–308. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395226.
Spencer, T. J., & Chase, P. N. (1996). Speed analyses of stimulus equivalence. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 65, 643–659. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1996.65-643.
Whelan, R. (2008). Effective analysis of reaction time data. The Psychological Record, 58, 475–482. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395630.
The authors express sincere gratitude to Dr. Deisy G. de Souza and Dr. Julio C. C. de Rose for granting the facilities at the Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil, where the study was conducted.
This research was funded by Oslo Metropolitan University.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The Brazilian National Council on Human Research approved the procedures (CONEP; Protocol CAAE 59735416.2.0000.5504).
All individual participants included in the study provided informed consent.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Ayres-Pereira, V., Arntzen, E. Effect of Presenting Baseline Probes During or After Emergent Relations Tests on Equivalence Class Formation. Psychol Rec 69, 193–204 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-018-0326-8
- stimulus equivalence
- training structures
- baseline probes
- adult participants