Health Effects of Climate Change Through Temperature and Air Pollution
- 27 Downloads
Purpose of Review
Recognizing health effects of changes in temperature caused by climate change and changes in air pollution affected by temperature changes on human health, predicting the health effects of both future temperature changes and air quality changes caused by climate change is critical to adopting a range of measures to respond to future climate change. The purpose of this review is to summarize studies on the health effects of temperature and air quality changes affected by climate change directly or indirectly, and to summarize the limitations of these studies.
After summarizing the main methods and results, we conclude that past temperature changes and air pollution caused by climate change directly or indirectly have a serious impact on the mortality or morbidity of human diseases, and climate change does impact human health and will exacerbate these effects. Moreover, it may have spatial and socioeconomic differences in the world. Nonetheless, these studies also indicate that policies about climate change and emission reduction can reduce these effects.
The evaluation focuses on the interaction between temperature change and air quality caused by climate change and assesses the impact of both on human health. There are still some uncertainties in existing research, and future health predictions related to climate change should focus on quantitative exploration of temperature and air pollution changes, eliminate interference caused by factors such as industrialization, and demographic changes, while the choice of meteorological conditions should be further extended, not just limited to the temperature and air quality.
KeywordsClimate change Temperature Air pollution Health effect
This work was supported by the Chinese Natural Science Foundation (41822709 & 41571475) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
- 1.IPCC. Climate change 2007: synthesis report. In: Core Writing Team, Pachauri, RK, Reisinger A (eds) IPCC, Geneva, p 104.2007.Google Scholar
- 3.WHO/A. Craggs. Climate change and health. In: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health. 2018.
- 5.IPCC. Summary for policymakers. In: Climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change.2014.Google Scholar
- 6.D'Amato G, Holgate ST, Pawankar R, Ledford DK, Cecchi L, Al-Ahmad M, et al. Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization. World Allergy Organ. 2015;8(1):25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40413-015-0073-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Biglari H, Geravandi S, Mohammadi MJ, Porazmey EJ, Chuturkova RZ, Khaniabadi YO, et al. Relationship between air particulate matter & meteorological parameters. Fresenius Environ Bull. 2017;26(6):4047–56.Google Scholar
- 21.Vardoulakis S, Dear K, Hajat S, Heaviside C, Eggen B, McMichael AJ. Comparative assessment of the effects of climate change on heat- and cold-related mortality in the United Kingdom and Australia. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122(12):1285–92. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Sahu SK, Zhang H, Guo H, Hu J, Ying Q, Kota SH. Health risk associated with potential source regions of PM2.5 in Indian cities. 2019.Google Scholar
- 24.WHO. Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. In: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health. 2018.
- 25.Ostro B. Outdoor air pollution: assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. Geneva, World Health Organisation (WHO). Environmental burden of disease series. Environmental Burden of Disease. 2004;5:691–4.Google Scholar
- 31.Kai C, Wolf K, Hampel R, Stafoggia M, Breitner S, Cyrys J, et al. Does temperature-confounding control influence the modifying effect of air temperature in ozone–mortality associations? Environ Epidemiol. 2018;2:1.Google Scholar
- 36.Wilson A, Reich BJ, Nolte CG, Spero TL, Hubbell B, Rappold AG. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozone|[ndash]|temperature risk surfaces. Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology 2016;27(1).Google Scholar
- 38.Camilla G, Camilla A, Otto HN, Anne Sofie L, Schwarze PE, Carsten Ambelas ST, et al. Future premature mortality due to O3, secondary inorganic aerosols and primary PM in Europe--sensitivity to changes in climate, anthropogenic emissions, population and building stock. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(3):2837–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 48.Selin NE, Wu S, Nam KM, Reilly JM, Paltsev S, Prinn RG et al. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution. Report - MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change 2009;4(4):940–1.Google Scholar
- 51.Knowlton K, Hogrefe C, Lynn B, Rosenzweig C, Rosenthal J, Kinney PL. Impacts of heat and ozone on mortality risk in the New York City metropolitan region under a changing climate. Advances in Global Change Research. 2008;30:143–60.Google Scholar
- 54.Elsa C, Jose C, Filipe Duarte S, Sari K. National assessment of human health effects of climate change in Portugal: approach and key findings. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006;114(12):1950–6.Google Scholar
- 62.Hong Q, Yu ITS, Wang X, Tian L, Tse LA, Wong TW. Season and humidity dependence of the effects of air pollution on COPD hospitalizations in Hong Kong. Atmos Environ. 2013;76(76):74–80.Google Scholar
- 63.Kai C, Hai BY, Zong WM, Jun BI, Lei H. Influence of temperature to the short-term effects of various ozone metrics on daily mortality in Suzhou. China Atmospheric Environment. 2013;79(11):119–28.Google Scholar
- 69.Lam HC, Li AM, Chan EY, Goggins WB. The short-term association between asthma hospitalisations, ambient temperature, other meteorological factors and air pollutants in Hong Kong: a time-series study. Thorax. 2016;71(12):1097.Google Scholar
- 70.Ikram M, Yan Z, Yan L, Dan W. Assessing the possible impacts of temperature change on air quality and public health in Beijing, 2008–2012. Natural Hazards. 2015;84(1):1–13.Google Scholar
- 71.Benmarhnia T, Oulhote Y, Petit C, Lapostolle A, Chauvin P, Zmirou-Navier D et al. Chronic air pollution and social deprivation as modifiers of the association between high temperature and daily mortality. Environmental health : a global access science source. 2014;13(1):1–8.Google Scholar
- 79.Ren C, Williams GM, Morawska L, Mengersen K, Tong S. Ozone modifies associations between temperature and cardiovascular mortality: analysis of the NMMAPS data. Epidemiology. 2008;65(4):255–60.Google Scholar
- 86.Tsangari H, Paschalidou A, Vardoulakis S, Heaviside C, Konsoula Z, Christou S et al. Human mortality in Cyprus: the role of temperature and particulate air pollution. Regional Environmental Change. 2016;16(7):1905–13.Google Scholar
- 89.Wilson A, Rappold AG, Neas LM, Reich BJ. Modeling the effect of temperature on ozone-related mortality. Ann Appl Stat. 2014;8(3):729.Google Scholar
- 91.Jhun I, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Hubbell B, Koutrakis P. The impact of weather changes on air quality and health in the United States in 1994–2012. Environmental research letters : ERL [Web site]. 2015;10(8):084009.Google Scholar
- 96.Mahmud A, Tyree M, Dan C, Motallebi N, Kleeman MJ. Statistical downscaling of climate change impacts on ozone concentrations in California. J Geophys Res-Atmos 2008;113(D21):-.Google Scholar
- 105.Atkinson RW, Yu D, Armstrong BG, Pattenden S, Wilkinson P, Doherty RM, et al. Concentration-response function for ozone and daily mortality: results from five urban and five rural U.K. populations. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120(10):1411–7. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 109.Scortichini M, De Sario M, de'Donato FK, Davoli M, Michelozzi P, Stafoggia M. Short-term effects of heat on mortality and effect modification by air pollution in 25 Italian cities. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018;15(8). doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081771.