Multi-Reservoir Utilization Planning to Optimize Hydropower Energy and Flood Control Simultaneously

  • Hamidreza Rahimi
  • Mostafa K. ArdakaniEmail author
  • Mohamadreza Ahmadian
  • Xiaonan Tang
Original Article


Optimizing the utilization of reservoirs has become an indispensable part of water resources planning. One of the challenges is how to overcome the conflict between the flood control and the revenue generated from hydropower energy. The Ostour and Pirtaghi reservoirs, which are crucial in Iran water system, are selected in this study. The aim is to find the optimal values for water release from each reservoir over a 12-month period to maximize both objective functions. The imperialist competitive algorithm is employed to optimize this multiobjective-nonlinear problem with complex constraints. It is observed that the imperialist competitive algorithm has a fast convergence and it is highly adaptable to defined constraints such as water release limitation, minimum downstream flow, water balance in reservoirs. This study results in better flood control and more revenue from the sale of hydropower energy. The paper also provides a systematic guidance to properly formulate and solve a multi-objective problem.


Flood control Hydropower energy Imperialist competitive algorithm Multi-objective optimization 



The authors would like to thank two anonymous reviewers and the associate editor of the journal for their constructive comments, which significantly helped to improve the quality of the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamidreza Rahimi
    • 1
  • Mostafa K. Ardakani
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohamadreza Ahmadian
    • 3
  • Xiaonan Tang
    • 4
  1. 1.University of LiverpoolLiverpoolEngland
  2. 2.Florida Polytechnic UniversityLakelandUSA
  3. 3.Ferdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  4. 4.Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool UniversitySuzhouChina

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