Advertisement

Removal of COD from Industrial Biodiesel Wastewater Using an Integrated Process: Electrochemical-Oxidation with IrO2-Ta2O5/Ti Anodes and Chitosan Powder as an Adsorbent

  • D. P. Myburgh
  • M. AzizEmail author
  • F. Roman
  • J. Jardim
  • S. Chakawa
Original Article
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

The production of biodiesel is an energy and water-intensive process that produces wastewater with high concentrations of COD, BOD, and FOG. Conventional treatment processes are not capable of treating contaminants and pollutants in biodiesel wastewater to satisfactory concentrations, and hence, advanced treatment processes are necessary. Untreated discharge of biodiesel wastewater results in additional costs during the production of biodiesel when penalties and fines are applied. In this research, a lab-scale integrated treatment process was used to investigate the successful abatement of contaminants, COD, BOD and FOG, present in industrial biodiesel wastewater. The integrated treatment process consisted of three consecutive steps: acidification, electrochemical oxidation, and adsorption. Acidification as a pre-treatment occurred at a pH of 2. Electrochemical oxidation using IrO2-Ta2O5/Ti anodes at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and NaCl concentration of 0.08 M was followed by three consecutive adsorption stages using Chitosan powder at a concentration of 4.5 g/L. The experimental results show that the integrated treatment process could reduce COD, BOD and FOG levels by 94%, 86% and 95%, respectively. The treated effluent complies with local industrial effluent discharge standards, which could be disposed of safely without further treatment.

Keywords

Biodiesel wastewater Electrochemical oxidation Adsorption Chitosan MMO anode COD removal 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa for the student scholarship. NMT Electrodes (PTY) Ltd., Durban, South Africa, for supplying the IrO2–Ta2O5 anodes used in the electrochemical cell. The biodiesel producing company in Cape Town, South Africa, that supplied the industrial biodiesel wastewater effluent, used in this project.

References

  1. Ahmad AL, Sumathi S, Hameed BH (2005) Adsorption of residue oil from palm oil mill effluent using powder and flake chitosan: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Water Res 39:2483–2494.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.03.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aksoyoglu S (1989) Sorption of U(VI) on granite. J Radioanal Nucl Chem Artic 134:393–403.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02278276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almomani F, Baranova EA (2012) Electro-oxidation of two reactive azo dyes on a boron-doped diamond electrode. Water Sci Technol 66:465–471.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2012.180 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhatt AS, Sakaria PL, Vasudevan M, Pawar PR, Sudheesh N, Bajaj HC, Mody HM (2012) Adsorption of an anionic dye from aqueous medium by organoclays: equilibrium modelling, kinetic and thermodynamic exploration. RSC Adv 2:8663.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ra20347b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouberka AKZ, Kameche FSM, Derriche Z (2007) Adsorption study of an industrial dye by an organic clay. 149–158.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-007-9016-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chavalparit O, Ongwandee M (2009) Optimizing electrocoagulation process for the treatment of biodiesel wastewater using response surface methodology. J Environ Sci 21:1491–1496.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62445-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiou MS, Li HY (2002) Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of adsorption of reactive dye on cross-linked chitosan beads. J Hazard Mater 93:233–248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00030-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coledam DAC, Aquino JM, Rocha-Filho RC, Bocchi N, Biaggio SR (2014) Influence of chloride-mediated oxidation on the electrochemical degradation of the direct black 22 dye using boron-doped diamond and β-PbO2 anodes. Quim Nova 37:1312–1317.  https://doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20140219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Comninellis C (1994) Electrocatalysis in the electrochemical conversion/combustion of organic pollutants. Electrochim Acta 39:1857–1862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Costa NM, Silva VM, Damaceno G, Sousa RMF, Richter EM, Machado AEH, Trovó AG (2017) Integrating coagulation-flocculation and UV-C or H2O2/UV-C as alternatives for pre- or complete treatment of biodiesel effluents. J Environ Manag 203:229–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.07.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daud NM, Rozaimah S, Abdullah S, Hasan HA, Yaakob Z (2014) Production of biodiesel and its wastewater treatment technologies : a review. Process Saf Environ Prot 94:487–508.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2014.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Daud Z, Awang H, Abdul Latif AA, Nasir N, Ridzuana MH, Ahmad Z (2015) Suspended solid, colour, COD and oil and grease removal from biodiesel wastewater by coagulation and flocculation processes. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci 195:2407–2411.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Marques Neto JO, Bellato CR, Milagres JL, Pessoa KD, de Alvarenga ES (2013) Preparation and evaluation of chitosan beads immobilized with iron(III) for the removal of as(III) and as(V) from water. J Braz Chem Soc 24:121–132.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532013000100017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dewil R, Mantzavinos D, Poulios I, Rodrigo MA (2017) New perspectives for advanced oxidation processes. J Environ Manag 195:93–99.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.04.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fajardo AS, Seca HF, Martins RC (2017) Electrochemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters using a batch-stirred reactor with NaCl electrolyte and Ti/RuO2 anodes. J Electroanal Chem 785:180–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2016.12.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fazal MA, Haseeb ASMA, Masjuki HH (2011) Biodiesel feasibility study: an evaluation of material compatibility; performance; emission and engine durability. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:1314–1324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Foley T, Thornton K, Dixon RK (2015) REN21. 2015. Renewables 2015 Global Status ReportGoogle Scholar
  18. Garcia-Segura S, Brillas E (2011) Mineralization of the recalcitrant oxalic and oxamic acids by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using a boron-doped diamond anode. Water Res 45:2975–2984.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garcia-Segura S, Ocon JD, Chong MN (2018) Electrochemical oxidation remediation of real wastewater effluents — a review. Process Saf Environ Prot 113:48–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2017.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haseeb ASMA, Fazal MA, Jahirul MI, Masjuki HH (2011) Compatibility of automotive materials in biodiesel: a review. Fuel 90:922–931.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.10.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang CA, Yang SW, Chen CZ, Hsu F-Y (2017) Electrochemical behaviour of IrO2 -Ta2 O5 /Ti anodes prepared with different surface pretreatments of Ti substrate. Surf Coatings Technol 320:270–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jaruwat P, Kongjao S, Hunsom M (2010) Management of biodiesel wastewater by the combined processes of chemical recovery and electrochemical treatment. Energy Convers Manag 51:531–537.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2009.10.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kilislioglu A, Bilgin B (2003) Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of uranium adsorption on amberlite IR-118H resin. Appl Radiat Isot 58:155–160.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(02)00316-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Laus R, Costa TG, Szpoganicz B, Fávere VT (2010) Adsorption and desorption of cu(II), cd(II) and Pb(II) ions using chitosan crosslinked with epichlorohydrin-triphosphate as the adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 183:233–241.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ltaïef AH, D’Angelo A, Ammar S, Gadri A, Galia A, Scialdone O (2017) Electrochemical treatment of aqueous solutions of catechol by various electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: effect of the process and of operating parameters. J Electroanal Chem 796:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.04.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moreira FC, Boaventura RAR, Brillas E, Vilar VJP (2017) Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: a review on their application to synthetic and real wastewaters. Appl Catal B Environ 202:217–261.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.08.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ngamlerdpokin K, Kumjadpai S, Chatanon P (2011) Remediation of biodiesel wastewater by chemical- and electro-coagulation: a comparative study. J Environ Manag 92:2454–2460.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Özcan AS, Erdem B, Özcan A (2004) Adsorption of Acid Blue 193 from aqueous solutions onto Na – bentonite and DTMA – bentonite. 280:44–54. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.07.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ozcan A, Ozcan A, Tunali S (2005) Determination of the equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of adsorption of copper(II) ions onto seeds of. J Hazard Mater 124:200–208.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Palomino Romero JA, Cardoso Junior FSS, Figueiredo RT, Silva DP, Cavalcanti EB (2013) Treatment of biodiesel wastewater by combined electroflotation and electrooxidation processes. Sep Sci Technol 48:2073–2079.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2013.779712 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pitakpoolsil W, Hunsom M (2013) Adsorption of pollutants from biodiesel wastewater using chitosan flakes. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 44:963–971.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2013.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rajkumar D, Palanivelu K (2004) Electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater. J Hazard Mater 113:123–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.05.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rajkumar D, Kim JG, Palanivelu K (2005) Indirect electrochemical oxidation of phenol in the presence of chloride for wastewater treatment. Chem Eng Technol 28:98–105.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.200407002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rattanapan C, Sawain A, Suksaroj T, Suksaroj C (2011) Enhanced efficiency of dissolved air flotation for biodiesel wastewater treatment by acidification and coagulation processes. Desalination 280:370–377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.07.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ruhsing Pan J, Huang C, Chen S, Chung YC (1999) Evaluation of a modified chitosan biopolymer for coagulation of colloidal particles. Colloids Surface A Physicochem Eng Asp 147:359–364.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(98)00588-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sakkayawong N, Thiravetyan P, Nakbanpote W (2005) Adsorption mechanism of synthetic reactive dye wastewater by chitosan. J Colloid Interface Sci 286:36–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2005.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Santos MRG, Goulart MOF, Tonholo J, Zanta CLPS (2006) The application of electrochemical technology to the remediation of oily wastewater. Chemosphere 64:393–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.12.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sharma NK, Philip L (2016) Combined biological and photocatalytic treatment of real coke oven wastewater. Chem Eng J 295:20–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.03.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Siles JA, Martin MA, Chica AF, Martin A (2010) Anaerobic co-digestion of glycerol and wastewater derived from biodiesel manufacturing. Bioresour Technol 101:6315–6321.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.03.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sokker HH, El-Sawy NM, Hassan MA, El-Anadouli BE (2011) Adsorption of crude oil from aqueous solution by hydrogel of chitosan-based polyacrylamide prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization. J Hazard Mater 190:359–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.03.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Suehara K, Kawamoto Y, Fujii E (2005) Biological treatment of wastewater discharged from biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification. J Biosci Bioeng 100:437–442.  https://doi.org/10.1263/jbb.100.437 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sukkasem C, Laehlah S, Hniman A (2011) Upflow bio-filter circuit (UBFC): biocatalyst microbial fuel cell (MFC) configuration and application to biodiesel wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 102:10363–10370.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thirugnanasambandham K, Sivakumar V, Prakash Maran J, Kandasamy S (2014) Chitosan-based grey wastewater treatment-a statistical design approach. Carbohydr Polym 99:593–600.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.08.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vázquez I, Rodríguez-Iglesias J, Marañón E, Castrillon L, Alvarez M (2007) Removal of residual phenols from coke wastewater by adsorption. J Hazard Mater 147:395–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Veljković VB, Stamenković OS, Tasić MB (2014) The wastewater treatment in the biodiesel production with alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Renew Sust Energ Rev 32:40–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wu W, Huang Z-H, Lim T-T (2014) Recent development of mixed metal oxide anodes for electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants in water. Appl Catal A Gen 480:58–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2014.04.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Xu X, Cheng Y, Zhang T (2016) Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater using interior micro-electrolysis/Fenton oxidation-coagulation and biological degradation. Chemosphere 152:23–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.02.100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yan Z, Zhao Y, Zhang Z (2015) A study on the performance of IrO2-Ta2O5 coated anodes with surface-treated Ti substrates. Electrochim Acta 157:345–350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2015.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Department of Chemical EngineeringCape Peninsula University of TechnologyBellvilleRepublic of South Africa

Personalised recommendations