Advertisement

Strengthening Pluvial Flood Risk Management in the Southeast Region of Bangladesh: Lessons Learnt from the EU Policy and Practice

  • Mohammad Jahir Uddin
  • Mohammad Mehedi HasanEmail author
  • Steven J. Eisenreich
  • Philippe Quevauviller
Original Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

The trend of flood damages triggered by heavy downpour continues in the southeastern region of Bangladesh due to a lack of non-structural approaches, effective planning and policy. Appropriate guidelines will be needed to develop a robust strategy for improving flood risk management based on advanced technologies, research and practices. The experience gained through the recent EU-funded projects for flash floods, the EU Water Framework Directive and Floods Directive, and the Driver Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework provide useful insights to solve the problems associated with the flash floods in Bangladesh. Flood marks, post-flood analysis and witness interviews in FLOODsite basins of Europe provide good practices for improving the flash flood risk management. This paper presents normative conclusions from case studies conducted in Feni, Bangladesh on how to manage pluvial flood risk resiliently using strategic planning by considering EU-policy, practice and framework. Interviews were conducted, questionnaires, field observations and focus group discussions were undertaken with the affected community with and without flood experience, national water experts, water management practitioners and local authorities responsible for decision-making on flood risk management. The paper concludes with a number of recommendations for pluvial flood risk management policy making, strategy formulating and practices.

Keywords

Flood risk management DPSIR framework Flash flood Water policy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by the Interuniversity Cooperation Programme of the Flemish Interuniversity Council (VLIR-UOS), Belgium. The authors would like to thank BWDB, CEGIS and IWM officials from who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research. Constructive comments from the anonymous reviewers and the journal editor are also sincerely appreciated.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

References

  1. Ahmed B, Kelman I, Fehr HK, Saha M (2016) Community resilience to cyclone disasters in coastal Bangladesh. Sustain 8:805.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8080805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed B (2018) Who takes responsibility for the climate refugees? Intl J Clim Chan Strat and Managt 10:5–26 https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/IJCCSM-10-2016-0149 Google Scholar
  3. Akmalah E, Grigg NS (2011) Jakarta flooding: systems study of socio-technical forces. Wat Intl 36:733–747.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2011.610729 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basak SR, Basak AC, Rahman MA (2015) Impacts of floods on forest trees and their coping strategies in Bangladesh. Weath and Clim Extr 7:43–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2014.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benini L, Bandini V, Marazza D, Contin A (2010) Assessment of land use changes through an indicator-based approach: a case study from the Lamone river basin in northern Italy. Ecol Indic 10:4–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borga M (2006) Executive summary. Pilot study flash flood basins of FLOODsite project. Retrieved from http://www.floodsite.net/html/search_results.asp?documentType. Accessed 13 June 2015
  7. Carbone M, Garofalo G, Tomei G, Piro P (2014) Storm tracking based on rain gauges for flooding control in urban areas. Pro Engg 70:256–265.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.02.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan FKS, Mitchell G, Adekola O, McDonald A (2012) Flood risk in Asia’s urban mega-deltas: drivers, impacts and response. Envt and Urban ASIA 3:41–61.  https://doi.org/10.1177/097542531200300103 Google Scholar
  9. CORFU (2014) Project final report of CORFU project. Retreived from: http://www.corfu7.eu/media/universityofexeter/research/microsites/corfu/1publicdocs/publicresults/CORFU_Project_Final_Report.pdf. Accessed 12 Oct 2014
  10. DDM (2014) Annual report , Department of Disaster Management, Ministry of Food and Disaster Management. Retrieved from: http://www.bmd.gov.bd/. Accessed 17 Sept 2015
  11. Debnath J, Das N, Ahmed I, Bhowmik M (2017) Chronological change of land use/land cover of the Muhuri River basin from 1972 to 2016, Tripura, north-East India. Indian J Sci Technol 10(22):1–18.  https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i22/112067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DMB (2013) Situation report, disaster management information Centre, disaster management bureau, Ministry of Food and Disaster Management. Retrieved from: http://www.cdmp.org.bd/. Accessed 19 Feb 2015
  13. Doocy S, Daniels A, Packer C, Dick A, Kirsch TD (2013) The human impact of earthquakes: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review. PLoS Curr, 5. Available at: http://currents.plos.org/disasters/index.html%3Fp=6695.html. Accessed 28 Jan 2019
  14. EFAS (2015) The European Flood Awareness System. https Retrieved from: http://www.efas.eu/. Accessed 17 August 2015
  15. Eisenreich SJ, Bernasconi C, Campostrini P (2005) Climate change and the European water dimension. Retrieved from: http://agrienv.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pdfs/CC_and_the_Eur_Water_Dim_EUR21553EN_2005.pdf. Accessed 12 Jan 2015
  16. Genovese E, Przyluski V (2013) Storm surge disaster risk management: the Xynthia case study in France. J Risk Res 16:825–841.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2012.737826 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghatak M, Kamal A, Mishra OP (2012) Flood risk management in South Asia. Background paper In: Proceedings of the SAARC Workshop on Flood Risk Management in South Asia. 9-10 Oct, 2012, Islamabad, Pakistan. http://www.saarcstat.org/sites/default/files/publications/Workshp%20report%20on%20Flood.pdf. Accessed 2 Sept 2019
  18. GoB (1999) National Water Policy, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of the People's Repulic of Bangladesh, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  19. GoB (2008) National Plan for Disaster Management (2008-2015), Disaster Management Bureau, Ministry of Food and Disaster Management, Government of the People's Repulic of Bangladesh, Dhaka. Retrieved from https://www.preventionweb.net/files/9472_NationalPlanforDisastermanagement.pdf. Accessed 31 August 2019
  20. GoB (2010) National Plan for disaster management (2010–2015), disaster management and relief division, Ministry of Food and Disaster Management, Government of the People's Repulic of Bangladesh, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  21. Guinea Barrientos HE, Swain A (2015) Stakeholders' views towards flood risk management in the Paz River catchment area of Guatemala and El Salvador. Local Envt 20:892–907.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2013.874986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. GWP (2003) Integrated flood management case study: Bangladesh: flood management, 1–8. Retrieved from www.apfm.info/publications/casestudies/cs_bangladesh_syn.pd. Accessed 26 June 2015
  23. Hashemi M, Fateme Z, Bagheri A, Moridi A (2014) Flood assessment in the context of sustainable development using the DPSIR framework. Intl J Env Prot and Pol 2:41–49.  https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepp.20140202.11 Google Scholar
  24. Heinzeller T, Nebelsick JH (eds) (2005) Echinoderms: Munchen: proceedings of the 11th international echinoderm conference, 6–10 October 2003. CRC Press, MunichGoogle Scholar
  25. Hossain MS, Islam GMT, Raihan SU, Hassan SMQ, Khan RH (2016) Hydro-meteorological investigation of 2015 flash flood in eastern hill basin Bangladesh. In: Islam, Imam, Ali, Hoque, Rahman and Haque (eds.) Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering, 21-23 December 2016, CUET, Chittagong. Available at: http://www.cuet.ac.bd/icace/papers/water/206.pdf. Accessed 27 Feb 2017
  26. Huitema D, Mostert E, Egas W, Moellenkamp S, Pahl-Wostl C, Yalcin R (2009) Adaptive water governance: assessing the institutional prescriptions of adaptive co-management from a governance perspective and defining a research agenda. Ecol Soc 14(1):26 Retrieved from: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art26/. Accessed 29 August 2016
  27. IMED (2013) Project completion report of MKFCDI project, Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation Division, IMED, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Available at: https://imed.gov.bd/. Accessed 10 August 2015
  28. IPCC (2012) Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Field C. B, V. Barros T. F. Stocker D, Qin D. J, Dokken K. L, Ebi M. D, Mastrandrea K. J, Mach G.-K, Plattner S. K, Allen M, Tignor P. M, Midgley (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 582 pp. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/SREX_Full_Report-1.pdf. Accessed 24 June 2015
  29. Klijn F, Kreibich H, De Moel H, Penning-Rowsell E (2015) Adaptive flood risk management planning based on a comprehensive flood risk conceptualisation. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 20:845–864.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-015-9638-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kundzewicz ZW, Mata LJ, Arnell NW et al (2007) Freshwater resources and their management: climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter3.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2015
  31. Kurzbach S, Manojlović N, Hellmers S (2013) Automated model-based flood risk mapping for future scenarios of urban growth and climate change. In: International conference on flood resilience: experiences in Asia and Europe, ICFR 2013. Exeter. http://icfr2013.ex.ac.uk/papers/A2_Kurzbach.pdf. Accessed 29 May 2015
  32. Majewski W (2007) New approach to flood management. Publications of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences (E-7), 401Google Scholar
  33. McCarthy JJ, Canziani, OF, Leary NA, Dekken DJ, White K. S. Eds. (2001) Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Vol. 2). Cambridge University Press, 1042 pp. https://library.harvard.edu/collections/ipcc/docs/27_WGIITAR_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 23 May 2015
  34. Nilsen IB (2011) Runoff coefficients during extreme rainfall: the influence of runoff coefficients on runoff in flash flood-prone catchments - a case study of the small catchment Sæternbekken in Norway. Unpublished Master dissertation, University of Oslow, Norway. Available at: https://www.duo.uio.no/handle/10852/12669. Accessed 13 Jan 2019
  35. Nwe TT, Tokuzo H (2010) Sediment transport due to flooding from levee breach: a numerical application of the 2004 Niigata flood. Intl J Riv Basin Mgt 8:3–14.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15715121003714993 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. OECD (2003) Organization for Economic co-operation and Development. OECD Environmental Indicators Development, measurement and use Retrieved August 2015, http://www.oecd.org/environment/indicators-modelling-outlooks/24993546.pdf
  37. Osti RP (2018) Integrating flood and environmental risk management: principles and practices. ADB East Asia Working Paper Series (No. 15). Asian Development Bank.  https://doi.org/10.22617/WPS189607-2
  38. Parker D, Tunstall S, Wilson T (2005) Socio-economic benefits of flood forecasting and warning. Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, Queensway, Enfield, EN3 4SF, London, UK. Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.189.4285&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Accessed 29 Jan 2019
  39. Parvin GA, Rahman R, Fujita K, Shaw R (2018) Overview of flood management actions and policy planning in Bangladesh. Intl J Pub Pol 14:423–443.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPP.2018.096700 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Paul SK, Routray JK (2010) Flood proneness and coping strategies: the experiences of two villages in Bangladesh. Disast 34:489–508.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.2009.01139.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Quevauviller P (2011) Adapting to climate change: reducing water-related risks in Europe – EU policy and research considerations. Envt Sci and Pol 14:722–729.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2011.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rahman R, Salehin M (2013) Flood risks and reduction approaches in Bangladesh. In: Shaw R, Mallick F, Islam A (eds) Disaster risk reduction approaches in Bangladesh. Disaster risk reduction (methods, approaches and practices). Springer, Tokyo.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54252-0_4 Google Scholar
  43. Ravindranath NH, Rao S, Sharma N, Nair M, Gopalakrishnan R, Rao AS et al (2011) Climate change vulnerability profiles for north East India. Curr Sci:384–394 https://www.jstor.org/stable/24078517. Accessed 11 Sept 2016
  44. Reddy CS, Singh S, Dadhwal VK, Jha CS, Rao NR, Diwakar PG (2017) Predictive modelling of the spatial pattern of past and future forest cover changes in India. J Earth Syst Sci 126(8).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-016-0786-7
  45. Rosenzweig BR, McPhillips L, Chang H, Cheng C, Welty C, Matsler M, Iwaniec D, Cliff ID (2018) Pluvial flood risk and opportunities for resilience. WIREs Wat 5:e1302.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rozalis S, Morin E, Yair Y, Price C (2010) Flash flood prediction using an uncalibrated hydrological model and radar rainfall data in a Mediterranean watershed under changing hydrological conditions. J Hydrol 394:245–255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.03.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rözer V, Müller M, Bubeck P, Kienzler S, Thieken A, Pech I et al (2016) Coping with pluvial floods by private households. Wat 8:304.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tarlock AD (2012) United States flood control policy: the incomplete transition from the illusion of Total protection to risk management, 23 Duke Environmental law & Policy Forum 151–183 Available at: https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/delpf/vol23/iss1/5. Accessed 8 Jan 2015
  49. Tingsanchali T, Karim MF (2005) Flood hazard and risk analysis in the southwest region of Bangladesh. Hydrol Proced 19:2055–2069.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5666 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. UNISDR (2005) International strategy for disaster reduction Hyogo framework for action 2005-2015 : Building the resilience of nations. Hyogo: united nation. Retrieved from https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/1037. Accessed 13 April 2015
  51. UNISDR (2009) United Nations international strategy for disaster reduction (terminology on disaster risk reduction. United Nations, Geneva. Available at: https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/7817 . Accessed 11 April 2015
  52. UNISDR (2011) The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Annual Report 2011. Retrieved from https://www.unisdr.org/files/27627_ar2011v2.pdf . Accessed 8 August 2015
  53. UNISDR (2013) The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Annual Report 2013. Retrieved from https://www.unisdr.org/files/37302_annualreport2013.pdf. Accessed 8 August 2015
  54. UNISDR (2015) The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Vol. 05383). Sendai. Retrieved from http://www.wcdrr.org/uploads/Sendai_Framework_for_Disaster_Risk_Reduction_2015-2030.pdf. Accessed 23 April 2015
  55. UNU-EHS (2015) United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security World Risk Report 2015, available at: https://www.worldriskreport.org. Accessed 18 Feb 2015
  56. WARPO (1999) National Water Policy, water resources planning organization, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of the People's Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  57. WB (2013) Second flood risk management and urban resilience workshop (English). Proceedings. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/294061468244552779/Second-flood-risk-management-and-urban-resilience-workshop. Accessed 29 Oct 2016
  58. WFD (2000) Water Framework Directive WFD, 2000/60/EC. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/index_en.html5. Accessed 9 Jun 2015
  59. Webster PJ, Jian J (2011) Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369:4768–4797.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Willems P, de Lange WJ (2007) Concept of technical support to science–policy interfacing with respect to the implementation of the European water framework directive. Envt Sci and Pol 10:464–473.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2007.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yazdi J, Neyshabouri SS (2012) A simulation-based optimization model for flood management on a watershed scale. Wat Res Mangt 26:4569–4586.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-012-0167-1 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bangladesh Water Development BoardDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Hydraulic Research DirectorateRiver Research InstituteFaridpurBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic EngineeringVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations