Biological Treatment of 3,6-Dichloro-2-Methoxybenzoic Acid Using Anaerobic-Aerobic Sequential Batch Reactor
- 61 Downloads
A sequential anaerobic-aerobic batch reactor was used to treat 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) during a long operation period of 340 days in the presence of disodium anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate (AQS) as redox mediator. The sludge activity was evaluated for different dosages of dicamba over constant hydraulic retention time (HRT), neutral pH (6.5–7.5) and at ambient reactor temperature. Effects of increased dicamba concentration, solids retention time (SRT) and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) on the biodegradation of dicamba was monitored and compared with control reactor containing no dicamba. Results revealed that long operation period, long SRT and ORP were playing important role in the breakdown of dicamba to its transformation products and subsequent removal in the system. The system was capable of degrading the compound completely during long operation period, long SRT and at low ORP in the presence of AQS. Reducing condition in the anaerobic reactor significantly contributed to the treatment process through demethylation, dehalogenation and dechlorination reactions in the presence of different reducing bacteria. The results of GC-HRMS identified the anaerobic transformation products of dicamba as oleic acid (C18H34O2), 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z), 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester (C21H40O4), trans-13-Ocatadecenoic acid (C18H34O2) compounds which were then oxidised in the aerobic reactor.
KeywordsDicamba Biodegradation Anaerobic-aerobic SBR Dehalogenation Redox mediator
The authors would like to thank MHRD, Government of India, for providing funds through institutional fellowship to carry out the research. We would also thank DST and SAIF, IIT Bombay, India, for providing the GC-HRMS analysis facility.
- APHA (2016) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 2012Google Scholar
- Comfort SD, Inskeep WP, Macur RE (1992) Degradation and transport of dicamba in a clay soil. J Environ Qual 21(4):653–658. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1992.00472425002100040020x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Da Silva MER, Firmino PIM, dos Santos AB (2012) Impact of the redox mediator sodium anthraquinone-2, 6-disulphonate (AQDS) on the reductive decolourisation of the azo dye reactive red 2 (RR2) in one-and two-stage anaerobic systems. Bioresour Technol 121(1–7):1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.06.099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- González-Cuna S, Galíndez-Mayer J, Ruiz-Ordaz N, Murugesan S, Piña-Escobedo A, García-Mena J, Santoyo-Tepole F (2016) Aerobic biofilm reactor for treating a commercial formulation of the herbicides 2, 4-D and dicamba: biodegradation kinetics and biofilm bacterial diversity. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 107:123–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hamilton D, Crossley S (Eds.) (2004) Pesticide residues in food and drinking water: human exposure and risks. John Wiley and Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470091614
- Khorsandi H, Ghochlavi N, Aghapour AA (2018) Biological degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol by a sequencing batch reactor. Environ Process 5(4):907–917. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-018-0333-4
- Kuppusamy S, Jayaraman N, Jagannathan M, Kadarkarai M, Aruliah R (2017) Electrochemical decolorization and biodegradation of tannery effluent for reduction of chemical oxygen demand and hexavalent chromium. J Water Process Eng 20:22–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2017.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Speece RE (1996) Anaerobic biotechnology for industrial wastewaters. Archae Press, NashvilleGoogle Scholar
- William KV, Armbrust K (2002) Weed science Society of America. Herbicide handbook, Lawrence KS, USAGoogle Scholar
- Yeruva DK, Jukuri S, Velvizhi G, Kumar AN, Swamy YV, Mohan SV (2015) Integrating sequencing batch reactor with bio-electrochemical treatment for augmenting remediation efficiency of complex petrochemical wastewater. Bioresour Technol 188:33–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar