Advertisement

Strengths-Based Positive Schooling Interventions: a Scoping Review

  • Aneesh Kumar PEmail author
  • Fahima Mohideen
Systematic Review
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

Positive schooling is the positive psychological movement that calls for the incorporation of student well-being as a focus of the learning environment. A strength-based approach to positive schooling employs character strengths as a pathway to positive change and well-being. The scoping review aimed to systematically review and map the strength-based positive schooling interventions that have been conducted thus far on adolescent students. It has been performed using the five-stage theoretical framework proposed by Arksey and O’Malley. The present scoping review has identified 13 such studies, and examined the program design, outcomes, and theoretical underpinnings. Despite mixed intervention results, this paper highlights that strength-based positive schooling interventions produce promising positive outcomes in student well-being and positive emotions. The study also identified a need for evidence of the long-term effectiveness of these interventions, whole-school approaches, and theory building in positive schooling and education.

Keywords

Positive schooling Character strengths Scoping review Positive psychology Strengths-based 

Notes

References

  1. Adom, D., Hussein, E. K., & Joe, A. A. (2018). Theoretical and conceptual framework: mandatory ingredients for a quality research. International Journal of Scientific Research, 7(1), 438–441.Google Scholar
  2. Arksey, H., & O'Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19–32.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asiyai, R. (2014). Students’ perception of the condition of their classroom physical learning environment and its impact on their learning and motivation. College Student Journal, 48(4), 716–726.Google Scholar
  4. Babbie, E. (2004). The practice of social research (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.Google Scholar
  5. Biswas-Diener, R., Kashdan, T. B., & Minhas, G. (2011). A dynamic approach to psychological strength development and intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 106–118.Google Scholar
  6. Boslaugh, S. (2008). Encyclopedia of epidemiology (Vols. 1–2). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412953948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burckhardt, R., Manicavasagar, V., Batterham, P. J., Miller, L. M., Talbot, E., & Lum, A. (2015). A web-based adolescent positive psychology program in schools: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(7):e187  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.4329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1966). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, J. (2006). Social, emotional, ethical, and academic education: creating a climate for learning, participation in democracy, and well-being. Harvard Educational Review, 76, 201–237.  https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.76.2.j44854x1524644vn.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crano, W. D., Brewer, M. B., & Lac, A. (2015). Principles and methods of social research. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Schneider, B. (2001). Conditions for optimal development in adolescence: an experiential approach. Applied Developmental Science, 5(3), 122–124.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS0503_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Denham, S. A. (2018). Keeping SEL developmental: the importance of a developmental Lens for fostering and assessing SEL competencies. Measuring SEL. Retrieved November 20, 2018 from https://measuringsel.casel.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Frameworks-DevSEL.pdf.
  14. Denham, S. A., Wyatt, T., Bassett, H. H., Echeverria, D., & Knox, S. (2009). Assessing social-emotional development in children from a longitudinal perspective. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63, 37–52.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2007.070797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diener, E., Nickerson, C., Lucas, R. E., & Sandvik, E. (2002). Dispositional affect and job outcomes. Social Indicators Research, 59, 229–259.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019672513984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duan, W., Ho, S. M. Y., Tang, X., Li, T., & Zhang, Y. (2014). Character strength-based intervention to promote satisfaction with life in the Chinese university context. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(6), 1347–1361.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9479-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. El Nokali, N. E., Bachman, H. J., & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2010). Parent involvement and children’s academic and social development in elementary school. Child Development, 81, 988–1005.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01447.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2017). America’s children: Key national indicators of well-being, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.childstats.gov/pdf/ac2017/ac_17.pdf
  19. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Frey, B. (2018). The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (Vols. 1–4). Thousand Oaks,, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781506326139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Froh, J. J., Sefick, W. J., & Emmons, R. A. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: an experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 46(2), 213–233.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2007.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gallo, J. J., & Lee, S. Y. (2015). Mixed methods in behavioral intervention research. In L. N. Gitlin & S. J. Czaja (Eds.), Behavioral interventions: Designing, evaluating and implementing. New York: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  23. Gander, F., Proyer, R. T., Ruch, W., & Wyss, T. F. (2012). Strength-based positive interventions: further evidence for their potential in enhancing well-being and alleviating depression. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(4), 1241–1259.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9380-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gehlbach, H., Brinkworth, M. E., & Harris, A. D. (2012). Changes in teacher-student relationships. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 690–704.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.02058.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grant, C., & Osanloo, A. (2014). Understanding, selecting, and integrating a theoretical framework in dissertation research: creating the blueprint for ‘house. Administrative Issues Journal: Connecting Education, Practice and Research, 4(2), 12–26.  https://doi.org/10.5929/2014.4.2.9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gunnell, D., Kidger, J., & Elvidge, H. (2018). Adolescent mental health in crisis. BMJ, 361, k2608.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k2608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2006). Student-teacher relationships. In G. G. Bear & K. M. Minke (Eds.), Children’s needs III: development, prevention, and intervention (pp. 59–71). Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  28. Huebner, E. S., Drane, J. W., & Valois, R. F. (2000). Levels and demographic correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports. School Psychology International, 21, 281–292.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034300213005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: from languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43(2), 207–222.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3090197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kunz, R., Vist, G. E., & Oxman, A. D. (2007). Randomisation to protect against selection bias in healthcare trials. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, MR000012.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.MR000012.pub2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Louis, M. C. (2011). Strengths interventions in higher education: the effect of identification versus development approaches on implicit self-theory. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(3), 204–215.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.570366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lyubomirsky, S. (2011). Hedonic adaptation to positive and negative experiences. In S. Folkman (Ed.), Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping (pp. 200–224). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005a). The benefits of frequent positive affect: does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803–855.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195375343.013.0011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005b). Pursuing happiness: the architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marques, S. C., Lopez, S. J., & Pais-Ribeiro, J. L. (2011). “Building hope for the future”: a program to foster strengths in middle-school students. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 12(1), 139–152.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-009-9180-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marrero, R. J., Carballeira, M., Martín, S., Mejías, M., & Hernández, J. A. (2016). Effectiveness of a positive psychology intervention combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in university students. Anales de Psicología, 32(3), 728–740.  https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.32.3.261661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maulana, R., Opdenakker, M., Stroet, K., & Bosker, R. (2013). Changes in teachers’ involvement versus rejection and links with academic motivation during the first year of secondary education: a multilevel growth curve analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(9), 1348–1371 doi:http://dx.doi.org.goucher.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10964-013-9921-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McEwan, H., & Egan, K. (1995). Narrative in teaching, learning and research. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  39. Menegazzo, J. S., Cruz-Ortiz, V., Ortega-Maldonado, A., & Salanova, M. (2015). Positive institutions and their relationship with transformational leadership, empathy and team performance. Multidisciplinary Journal for Education, Social and Technological Sciences, 2(2), 38–64.  https://doi.org/10.4995/muse.2015.3694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moher, D., Liberate, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D., & The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Physical Therapy, 89(9), 873–880.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Mojtabai, R., Olfson, M., & Han, B. (2016). National trends in the prevalence and treatment of depression in adolescents and young adults. Pediatrics, 138(6), e20161878.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1878.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. O’Hara, J., & McNamara, G. (2001). Process and product issues in the evaluation of school development planning. Evaluation, 7(1), 99–109.  https://doi.org/10.1177/13563890122209540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oppenheimer, M. F., Fialkov, C., Ecker, B., & Portnoy, S. (2014). Teaching to strengths: character education for urban middle school students. Journal of Character Education, 10(2), 91–105.Google Scholar
  44. Park, N. (2004). Character strengths and positive youth development. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591(1), 40–54.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716203260079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Character strengths: Research and practice. Journal of College and Character, 10(4), 1–10.Google Scholar
  46. Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603–619.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.23.5.603.50748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pianta, R. C., Nimetz, S. L., & Bennett, E. (1997). Mother–child relationships, teacher–child relationships, and school outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(3), 263–280.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90003-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Proctor, C., Tsukayama, E., Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Eades, J. F., & Linley, P. A. (2011). Strengths gym: the impact of a character strengths-based intervention on the life satisfaction and well-being of adolescents. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(5), 377–388.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.594079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ravitch, S. M., & Carl, N. M. (2016). Qualitative research: bridging the conceptual, theoretical and methodological. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  50. Rimm-Kaufman, S. & Sandilos, L. (2012). Improving students’ relationships with teachers to provide essential supports for learning. Retrieved November 20, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/education/k12/relationships.aspx?item=1.
  51. Romo-González, T., Ehrenzweig, Y., Sánchez-Gracida, O. D., Enríquez-Hernández, C. B., López-Mora, G., Martinez, A. J., & Larralde, C. (2013). Promotion of individual happiness and wellbeing of students by a positive education intervention. Journal of Behavior, Health & Social Issues, 5(2), 79–102.  https://doi.org/10.5460/jbhsi.v5.2.42302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (2003). Flourishing under fire: resilience as a prototype of challenged thriving. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 15–36). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. R. (Eds.). (2014). Treatment integrity: a foundation of evidence-based practice in applied psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  54. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: an introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Seligman, M. E. P., Ernst, R. M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Review of Education, 35, 293–311.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980902934563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2011). Research methods in psychology (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  58. Shoshani, A., & Steinmetz, S. (2014). Positive psychology at school: a school-based intervention to promote adolescents’ mental health and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 15(6), 1289–1311.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9476-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shoshani, A., Steinmetz, S., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2016). Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents’ well-being, engagement, and achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 57, 73–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2016.05.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Sin, N., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 65(5), 467–487.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20593.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Skinner, E., & Greene, T. (2008). Perceived control, coping, and engagement. In T. L. Good (Ed.), 21st century education: a reference handbook (Vol. 2) (pp. 121–130). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412964012.n13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Positive psychology: the scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  63. Spilt, J. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., & Thijs, J. T. (2011). Teacher wellbeing: the importance of teacher-student relationships. Educational Psychology Review, 23(4), 457–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration. (2017). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-FFR1-2016/NSDUH-FFR1-2016.htm
  65. Ulug, M., Ozden, M. S., & Eryilmaz, A. (2011). The effects of teachers’ attitudes on students’ personality and performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 738–742.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Waters, L. (2011). A review of school-based positive psychology interventions. The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 28(2), 75–90.  https://doi.org/10.1375/aedp.28.2.75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. White, M. A., & Waters, L. E. (2015). A case study of ‘The Good School:’ examples of the use of Peterson’s strengths-based approach with students. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(1), 69–76.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.920408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© California Association of School Psychologists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Positive Schooling and Student Mental Health Project, Department of PsychologyCHRIST (Deemed to be University)BengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations