Contemporary School Psychology

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 412–422 | Cite as

Taped Problems Intervention Components: A Meta-Analysis

  • Kathleen B. AspirantiEmail author
  • Elizabeth McCallum
  • Ara J. Schmitt


The taped problems (TP) intervention is a math fact fluency intervention designed to produce high rates of active and accurate academic responding. Multiple single-case design studies have examined the use of TP across grades of students, implementation group sizes, intervention settings, target math facts, total intervention time, application of reinforcement procedures, and inclusion of post-TP exercises as part of the intervention. This meta-analysis examines which TP components are related to greatest increases in math fact fluency. A total of 14 studies with 158 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Results support that TP is an effective intervention to increase math fact fluency, and significant moderators of TP effectiveness include intervention group size, setting, time in seconds in intervention, and the inclusion of reinforcement. Discussion focuses on implications of these findings for research and practice.


Taped problems Meta-analysis Intervention Mathematics Single-case design 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of Interest

Kathleen B. Aspiranti declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Elizabeth McCallum declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ara J. Schmitt declares that he has no conflict of interest.


*Denotes article included in meta-analysis

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Copyright information

© California Association of School Psychologists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen B. Aspiranti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elizabeth McCallum
    • 2
  • Ara J. Schmitt
    • 2
  1. 1.Counseling, School Psychology, and Educational LeadershipYoungstown State UniversityYoungstownUSA
  2. 2.Duquesne UniversityPittsburghUSA

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