An Examination of Critical features of Positive Frameworks: Impact in Rural Environments for School-based Practitioners
The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 requires the examination of schools to determine which factors of school quality relate to improved student outcomes. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is one such framework that proposes to create a positive school climate through school-wide principles of applied behavior analysis. These practices aim to create an environment that is more conducive for academic endeavors. Discovering ways to understand the use of universal prevention systems in rural schools is vital due to increased student need as well as professional shortages in education settings. This study examined the relations between school-level critical features of PBIS and standardized measures of reading and math achievement in schools in a rural, Midwestern state. The results demonstrate statistically and practically significant relations between the critical features of Expectations taught and District-level support on Total achievement (β = 0.67; β = 0.37), English language arts (ELA) achievement (β = 0.66; β = 0.34), and Math achievement (β = 0.63; β = 0.37). Implications for school-wide prevention efforts for school-based mental health providers in areas of critical personnel shortages are discussed to determine how schools may use prevention systems to impact student achievement.
KeywordsPositive behavior interventions and supports Academic achievement Rural schools School-based mental and behavioral health providers Professional shortages
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. The exemption from IRB is on file with the author.
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that the author is a MTSS coordinator for the State of South Dakota. There are no other conflicts of interest noted.
- Algozzine, R. F., Barrett, S., Eber, L., George, H., Horner, R. H., Lewis, T. J., Putnam, B., Swain-Bradway, J., McIntosh, K., & Sugai, G. (2014). SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. Eugene: OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Available from http://www.pbis.org.Google Scholar
- Betts, G. W., Hill, J. W., & Surface, J. L. (2014). Improving behavior and reading levels: Students' response to two years of participation in a teacher administered elementary level school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports program. Creative Education, 5(8), 533–541. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2014.58063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462–473. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bradshaw, C., Mitchell, M., & Leaf, P. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133–148. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300709334798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Browning-Wright, D., & Cook, C. (2011). All Children Experiencing Success. Omaha: ACES Presented at Westside Community Schools.Google Scholar
- Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015. 114 USC §§1177.Google Scholar
- Flannery, K. B., Fenning, P., Kato, M. M., & McIntosh, K. (2014). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 111–124. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000039.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. (2011). The Continuum of Literacy Learning: A Guide to Teaching. Portsmouth: Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. (Eds.). (2002). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills (6th ed.). Eugene: Institute for the Development of Education Achievement. Available at http://dibels.uoregon.edu.
- Gottfredson, G. D. (1984). Effective School Battery: User's manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Hagan-Burke, S., Burke, M. D., Martin, E., Boon, R. T., Fore III., C., & Kirkendoll, D. (2005). The internal consistency of the school-wide subscales of the effective behavioral support survey. Education & Treatment of Children, 28, 400–413.Google Scholar
- Hemmeter, M., Fox, L., Jack, S., & Broyles, L. (2007). A program-wide model of positive behavior support in early childhood settings. Journal Of Early Intervention, 29(4), 337–355. https://doi.org/10.1177/105381510702900405.
- Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J. (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133–145. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300709332067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 6(1), 2–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007040060010201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Keith, T. Z. (2015). Multiple regression and beyond: An introduction to multiple regression and structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Kellam, S. G., Mayer, L. S., Reebok, G. W., & Hawkins, W. E. (1998). The effects of improving achievement on aggressive behavior and of improving aggressive behavior on achievement through two prevention interventions: An investigation of causal paths. In B. Dohrenwend (Ed.), Adversity, stress, and psychopathology (pp. 486–505). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Kincaid, D., Childs, K., George, H. P. (2005). School-wide benchmarks of quality. Unpublished instrument. Tampa: University of South Florida.Google Scholar
- Liaupsin, C. Jolivette, K., & Scott, T. (2004). Schoolwide systems of behavior support: Maximizing student success in schools. In: R. B. Rutherford Jr., M. Magee Quinn, & S.Mathur (Eds.) Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders (pp. 487–501). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Licht, M. (1995). Multiple regression and correlation. In L. Grimm & P. Yarnold (Eds.), Reading and understanding multivariate statistics (p. xx). Washington: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Ludlow, B. L. (1998). Preparing special education personnel for rural schools: Current practices and future directions. Journal of Research in Rural Education., 14, 57–75.Google Scholar
- McIntosh, K., Chard, D., Boland, J., & Horner, R. H. (2006). A demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions., 8(3), 146–154. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007060080030301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muscott, H. S., Mann, E. L., & LeBrun, M. R. (2008). Positive behavioral interventions and supports in New Hampshire: Effects of large-scale implementation of school-wide positive behavior support on student discipline and academic achievement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 190–205. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300708316258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Center for Educational Statistics. (2016). Retrieved on April 8, 2016 from http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/schoolsearch/.
- Nelson, J. R., Martella, R. M., & Marchand-Martella, N. (2002). Maximizing student learning: The effects of a comprehensive school-based program for preventing problem behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10, 136–148. https://doi.org/10.1177/10634266020100030201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Putnam, R., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, R. (2006). Academic achievement and the implementation of school-wide behavior support. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Newsletter, 3(1). Available from http://www.pbis.org/news/New/Newsletters/Newsletter1.aspx.
- Report Card. (2015). Retrieved on October 31, 2016, from http://doe.sd.gov/reportcard/
- Rural Population by State. (2010). Retrieved on April 3, 2018, from https://cber.cba.ua.edu/edata/census2010/Urban%20Rural%20by%20State%202010%20short%20ver.xls
- Sandomierski, T., Kincaid, D., & Algozzine, B. (2007). Response to intervention and positive behavior support: Brothers from different mothers or sisters with different misters? Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Newsletter, 4(2), 1–4.Google Scholar
- Simonsen, B., Eber, L., Black, A., Sugai, G., Lewandowski, H., Sims, B., & Myers, D. (2012). Illinois statewide positive behavioral interventions and supports: Evolution and impact on student outcomes across years. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 5–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711412601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smarter Balanced Technical Report. (2015). Retrieved on December 07, 2017 from https://portal.smarterbalanced.org/library/en/2014-15-technical-report.pdf
- Smith, S. W., Daunic, A. P., & Taylor, G. G. (2007). Treatment fidelity in applied educational research: Expanding the adoption and application of measures to ensure evidence-based practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(4), 121–134. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2007.0033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sparks, T. L. (2007). Implementation and sustainability of positive behavior support in elementary schools (Order No. 3310849). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304894697). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.usd.edu/docview/304894697?accountid=14750
- Spokane Public School District. (1997). Student safety survey. Spokane: Author.Google Scholar
- Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (1999). Discipline and behavioral support: Preferred processes and practices. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 10–22.Google Scholar
- Todd, A., Lewis-Palmer, T., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Sampson, N., & Phillips, D. (2012). Schoolwide Evaluation Tool 2.0 implementation manual. Eugene: University of Oregon.Google Scholar