Analysis of a singular Boussinesq model
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Recently, a new singularity formation scenario for the 3D axi-symmetric Euler equation and the 2D inviscid Boussinesq system has been proposed by Hou and Luo (Multiscale Model Simul 12(4):1722–1776, 2014, PNAS 111(36):12968–12973, 2014) based on extensive numerical simulations. As the first step to understand the scenario, models with simplified sign-definite Biot–Savart law and forcing have recently been studied in Choi et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 70(11):2218–2243, 2017, Commun Math Phys 334:1667–1679, 2015), Do et al. (J Nonlinear Sci, 2016. arXiv:1604.07118), Hoang et al. (J Differ Equ 264:7328–7356, 2018), Hou and Liu (Res Math Sci 2, 2015), Kiselev and Tan (Adv Math 325:34–55, 2018). In this paper, we aim to bring back one of the complications encountered in the original equation—the sign changing kernel in the Biot–Savart law. This makes analysis harder, as there are two competing terms in the fluid velocity integral whose balance determines the regularity properties of the solution. The equation we study here is based on the CKY model introduced in Choi et al. (2015). We prove that finite time blow up persists in a certain range of parameters.
Both authors gratefully acknowledge partial support of the NSF-DMS Grant 1712294. HY thanks Duke University for its hospitality. We thank the anonymous referees for useful suggestions to improve the paper.
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